Angiogenesis and co-optive vascular remodeling are prerequisites of solid tumor growth. Vascular heterogeneity, notably perivascular composition, may play a critical role in determining the rate of cancer progression. The contribution of vascular pericyte heterogeneity to cancer progression and therapy response is unknown. Here, we show that angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) orchestrates pericyte heterogeneity in breast cancer with an effect on metastatic disease and response to chemotherapy. Using multispectral imaging of human breast tumor specimens, we report that perivascular composition, as defined by the ratio of PDGFRβ– and desmin+ pericytes, provides information about the response to epirubicin but not paclitaxel. Using 17 distinct patient-derived breast cancer xenografts, we demonstrate a cancer cell–derived influence on stromal Ang2 production and a cancer cell–defined control over tumor vasculature and perivascular heterogeneity. The aggressive features of tumors and their distinct response to therapies may thus emerge by the cancer cell–defined engagement of distinct and heterogeneous angiogenic programs.
Jiha Kim, Pedro Correa de Sampaio, Donna Marie Lundy, Qian Peng, Kurt W. Evans, Hikaru Sugimoto, Mihai Gagea, Yvonne Kienast, Nayra Soares do Amaral, Rafael Malagoli Rocha, Hans Petter Eikesdal, Per Eystein Lønning, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Valerie S. LeBleu
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease with the highest case-fatality rate of all connective tissue diseases. Current efforts to determine patient response to a given treatment using the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) are complicated by interclinician variability, confounding, and the time required between sequential mRSS measurements to observe meaningful change. There is an unmet critical need for an objective metric of SSc disease severity. Here, we performed an integrated, multicohort analysis of SSc transcriptome data across 7 datasets from 6 centers composed of 515 samples. Using 158 skin samples from SSc patients and healthy controls recruited at 2 centers as a discovery cohort, we identified a 415-gene expression signature specific for SSc, and validated its ability to distinguish SSc patients from healthy controls in an additional 357 skin samples from 5 independent cohorts. Next, we defined the SSc skin severity score (4S). In every SSc cohort of skin biopsy samples analyzed in our study, 4S correlated significantly with mRSS, allowing objective quantification of SSc disease severity. Using transcriptome data from the largest longitudinal trial of SSc patients to date, we showed that 4S allowed us to objectively monitor individual SSc patients over time, as (a) the change in 4S of a patient is significantly correlated with change in the mRSS, and (b) the change in 4S at 12 months of treatment could predict the change in mRSS at 24 months. Our results suggest that 4S could be used to distinguish treatment responders from nonresponders prior to mRSS change. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of a novel robust molecular signature and a computational approach to SSc disease severity quantification.
Shane Lofgren, Monique Hinchcliff, Mary Carns, Tammara Wood, Kathleen Aren, Esperanza Arroyo, Peggie Cheung, Alex Kuo, Antonia Valenzuela, Anna Haemel, Paul J. Wolters, Jessica Gordon, Robert Spiera, Shervin Assassi, Francesco Boin, Lorinda Chung, David Fiorentino, Paul J. Utz, Michael L. Whitfield, Purvesh Khatri
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle disease characterized by progressive muscle deterioration and replacement with an aberrant fatty, fibrous matrix. Chronic upregulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is implicated as a driver of the dystrophic pathogenesis. Herein, 2 members of a novel class of NF-κB inhibitors, edasalonexent (formerly CAT-1004) and CAT-1041, were evaluated in both
David W. Hammers, Margaret M. Sleeper, Sean C. Forbes, Cora C. Coker, Michael R. Jirousek, Michael Zimmer, Glenn A. Walter, H. Lee Sweeney
Myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology, with hallmark symptoms including postexertional malaise and poor recovery. Metabolic dysfunction is a plausible contributing factor. We hypothesized that changes in serum amino acids may disclose specific defects in energy metabolism in ME/CFS. Analysis in 200 ME/CFS patients and 102 healthy individuals showed a specific reduction of amino acids that fuel oxidative metabolism via the TCA cycle, mainly in female ME/CFS patients. Serum 3-methylhistidine, a marker of endogenous protein catabolism, was significantly increased in male patients. The amino acid pattern suggested functional impairment of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), supported by increased mRNA expression of the inhibitory PDH kinases 1, 2, and 4; sirtuin 4; and PPARδ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both sexes. Myoblasts grown in presence of serum from patients with severe ME/CFS showed metabolic adaptations, including increased mitochondrial respiration and excessive lactate secretion. The amino acid changes could not be explained by symptom severity, disease duration, age, BMI, or physical activity level among patients. These findings are in agreement with the clinical disease presentation of ME/CFS, with inadequate ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation and excessive lactate generation upon exertion.
Øystein Fluge, Olav Mella, Ove Bruland, Kristin Risa, Sissel E. Dyrstad, Kine Alme, Ingrid G. Rekeland, Dipak Sapkota, Gro V. Røsland, Alexander Fosså, Irini Ktoridou-Valen, Sigrid Lunde, Kari Sørland, Katarina Lien, Ingrid Herder, Hanne Thürmer, Merete E. Gotaas, Katarzyna A. Baranowska, Louis M.L.J. Bohnen, Christoph Schäfer, Adrian McCann, Kristian Sommerfelt, Lars Helgeland, Per M. Ueland, Olav Dahl, Karl J. Tronstad
Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2), also known as serum amyloid P component (SAP/APCS), is a constitutive, antiinflammatory, innate immune plasma protein whose circulating level is decreased in chronic human fibrotic diseases. Here we show that recombinant human PTX-2 (rhPTX-2) retards progression of chronic kidney disease in
Naoki Nakagawa, Luke Barron, Ivan G. Gomez, Bryce G. Johnson, Allie M. Roach, Sei Kameoka, Richard M. Jack, Mark L. Lupher Jr., Sina A. Gharib, Jeremy S. Duffield
Hepatic fibrosis arises from inflammation in the liver initiated by resident macrophage activation and massive leukocyte accumulation. Hepatic macrophages hold a central position in maintaining homeostasis in the liver and in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic liver injury linked to fibrogenesis. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has recently emerged as an important proinflammatory transcription factor involved in macrophage activation under acute and chronic inflammation. Here, we revealed that IRF5 is significantly induced in liver macrophages from human subjects developing liver fibrosis from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or hepatitis C virus infection. Furthermore, IRF5 expression positively correlated with clinical markers of liver damage, such as plasma transaminase and bilirubin levels. Interestingly, mice lacking IRF5 in myeloid cells (MKO) were protected from hepatic fibrosis induced by metabolic or toxic stresses. Transcriptional reprogramming of macrophages lacking IRF5 was characterized by immunosuppressive and antiapoptotic properties. Consequently, IRF5 MKO mice respond to hepatocellular stress by promoting hepatocyte survival, leading to complete protection from hepatic fibrogenesis. Our findings reveal a regulatory network, governed by IRF5, that mediates hepatocyte death and liver fibrosis in mice and humans. Therefore, modulating IRF5 function may be an attractive approach to experimental therapeutics in fibroinflammatory liver disease.
Fawaz Alzaid, Floriane Lagadec, Miguel Albuquerque, Raphaëlle Ballaire, Lucie Orliaguet, Isabelle Hainault, Corinne Blugeon, Sophie Lemoine, Agnès Lehuen, David G. Saliba, Irina A. Udalova, Valérie Paradis, Fabienne Foufelle, Nicolas Venteclef
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by airway remodeling, inflammation, alveolar destruction, and fibrosis. We utilized single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to identify epithelial cell types and associated biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Transcriptomic analysis of normal human lung epithelial cells defined gene expression patterns associated with highly differentiated alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, indicated by enrichment of RNAs critical for surfactant homeostasis. In contrast, scRNA-seq of IPF cells identified 3 distinct subsets of epithelial cell types with characteristics of conducting airway basal and goblet cells and an additional atypical transitional cell that contributes to pathological processes in IPF. Individual IPF cells frequently coexpressed alveolar type 1 (AT1), AT2, and conducting airway selective markers, demonstrating “indeterminate” states of differentiation not seen in normal lung development. Pathway analysis predicted aberrant activation of canonical signaling via TGF-β, HIPPO/YAP, P53, WNT, and AKT/PI3K. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy identified the disruption of alveolar structure and loss of the normal proximal-peripheral differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. scRNA-seq analyses identified loss of normal epithelial cell identities and unique contributions of epithelial cells to the pathogenesis of IPF. The present study provides a rich data source to further explore lung health and disease.
Yan Xu, Takako Mizuno, Anusha Sridharan, Yina Du, Minzhe Guo, Jie Tang, Kathryn A. Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Anne-Karina T. Perl, Vincent A. Funari, Jason J. Gokey, Barry R. Stripp, Jeffrey A. Whitsett
Ectopic lymphoid tissues (ELT) can be found in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other organ-specific inflammatory conditions. Whether ELT in the meninges of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease exhibit local germinal center (GC) activity remains unknown. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of CNS autoimmunity, we found activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a GC-defining enzyme, in meningeal ELT (mELT) densely populated by B and T cells. To determine GC activity in mELT, we excised meningeal lymphoid aggregates using laser capture microscopy and evaluated B cell repertoires in mELT and secondary lymphoid organs by next-generation immune repertoire sequencing. We found immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region sequences that were unique to mELT and had accumulated functionally relevant somatic mutations, together indicating localized antigen-driven affinity maturation. Our results suggest that B cells in mELT actively participate in CNS autoimmunity, which may be relevant to mELT in MS and ELT in other chronic inflammatory conditions.
Klaus Lehmann-Horn, Sheng-zhi Wang, Sharon A. Sagan, Scott S. Zamvil, H.-Christian von Büdingen
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common autosomal dominant disorder that presents with short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and cardiac abnormalities. Activating mutations in the
Jae-Sung Yi, Yan Huang, Andrea T. Kwaczala, Ivana Y. Kuo, Barbara E. Ehrlich, Stuart G. Campbell, Frank J. Giordano, Anton M. Bennett
Maladaptive epithelial repair from chronic injury is a common feature in fibrotic diseases, which in turn activates a pathogenic fibroblast response that produces excessive matrix deposition. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRs) can regulate expression of multiple genes and fundamentally alter cellular phenotypes during fibrosis. Although several miRs have been shown to be associated with lung fibrosis, the mechanisms by which miRs modulate epithelial behavior in lung fibrosis are lacking. Here, we identified miR-323a-3p to be downregulated in the epithelium of lungs with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and murine bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Antagomirs for miR-323a-3p augment, and mimics suppress, murine lung fibrosis after bleomycin injury, indicating that this miR may govern profibrotic signals. We demonstrate that miR-323a-3p attenuates TGF-α and TGF-β signaling by directly targeting key adaptors in these important fibrogenic pathways. Moreover, miR-323a-3p lowers caspase-3 expression, thereby limiting programmed cell death from inducers of apoptosis and ER stress. Finally, we find that epithelial expression of miR-323a-3p modulates inhibitory crosstalk with fibroblasts. These studies demonstrate that miR-323a-3p has a central role in lung fibrosis that spans across murine and human disease, and downregulated expression by the lung epithelium releases inhibition of various profibrotic pathways to promote fibroproliferation.
Lingyin Ge, David M. Habiel, Phil M. Hansbro, Richard Y. Kim, Sina A. Gharib, Jeffery D. Edelman, Melanie Königshoff, Tanyalak Parimon, Rena Brauer, Ying Huang, Jenieke Allen, Dianhua Jiang, Adrianne A. Kurkciyan, Takako Mizuno, Barry R. Stripp, Paul W. Noble, Cory M. Hogaboam, Peter Chen
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