The deubiquitinase-encoding gene
Yingai Jane Jin, Sally Wang, Joshua Cho, M. Angelica Selim, Tim Wright, George Mosialos, Jennifer Y. Zhang
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease that usually begins in early life and involves gene-environment interactions. Although most asthma exhibits allergic inflammation, many allergic individuals do not have asthma. Here, we report how the asthma gene a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (
Elizabeth R. Davies, Joanne F.C. Kelly, Peter H. Howarth, David I. Wilson, Stephen T. Holgate, Donna E. Davies, Jeffrey A. Whitsett, Hans Michael Haitchi
Significant morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF) results from chronic lung inflammation, most commonly due to
Kong Chen, Brian T. Campfield, Sally E. Wenzel, Jeremy P. McAleer, James L. Kreindler, Geoffrey Kurland, Radha Gopal, Ting Wang, Wei Chen, Taylor Eddens, Kathleen M. Quinn, Mike M. Myerburg, William T. Horne, Jose M. Lora, Brian K. Albrecht, Joseph M. Pilewski, Jay K. Kolls
Urine concentration is regulated by vasopressin. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) mutations. We studied whether metformin could improve urine concentration in rodent models of congenital NDI by stimulating AMPK. To block the V2R in rats, tolvaptan (10 mg/kg/d) was given by oral gavage with or without metformin (800 mg/kg/d). Control rats received vehicle with or without metformin. Tamoxifen-induced V2R KO mice were given metformin (600 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily. Urine osmolality in tolvaptan-treated rats (1,303 ± 126 mOsM) was restored to control levels by metformin (2,335 ± 273 mOsM) within 3 days and was sustained for up to 10 days. Metformin increased protein abundance of inner medullary urea transporter UT-A1 by 61% and aquaporin 2 (AQP2) by 44% in tolvaptan-treated rats, and immunohistochemistry showed increased membrane accumulation of AQP2 with acute and chronic AMPK stimulation. Outer medullary Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) abundance increased (117%) with AMPK stimulation in control rats but not in V2R-blocked rats. Metformin increased V2R KO mouse urine osmolality within 3 hours, and the increase persisted for up to 12 hours. Metformin increased AQP2 in the V2R KO mice similar to the tolvaptan-treated rats. These results indicate that AMPK activators, such as metformin, might provide a promising treatment for congenital NDI.
Orhan Efe, Janet D. Klein, Lauren M. LaRocque, Huiwen Ren, Jeff M. Sands
Within the CNS, a dysregulated hemostatic response contributes to both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, plays an essential role in hemostasis and also contributes to thrombosis. Using both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we characterized the contribution of neuroectodermal (NE) cell TF to the pathophysiology of stroke. We used mice with various levels of TF expression and found that astrocyte TF activity reduced to ~5% of WT levels was still sufficient to maintain hemostasis after hemorrhagic stroke but was also low enough to attenuate inflammation, reduce damage to the blood-brain barrier, and improve outcomes following ischemic stroke. Pharmacologic inhibition of TF during the reperfusion phase of ischemic stroke attenuated neuronal damage, improved behavioral deficit, and prevented mortality of mice. Our data demonstrate that NE cell TF limits bleeding complications associated with the transition from ischemic to hemorrhagic stroke and also contributes to the reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke. The high level of TF expression in the CNS is likely the result of selective pressure to limit intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after traumatic brain injury but, in the modern era, poses the additional risk of increased ischemia-reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke.
Shaobin Wang, Brandi Reeves, Erica M. Sparkenbaugh, Janice Russell, Zbigniew Soltys, Hua Zhang, James E. Faber, Nigel S. Key, Daniel Kirchhofer, D. Neil Granger, Nigel Mackman, Rafal Pawlinski
Liver fibrosis, a consequence of chronic liver injury and a way station to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, lacks effective treatment. Endocannabinoids acting via cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1R) induce profibrotic gene expression and promote pathologies that predispose to liver fibrosis. CB1R antagonists produce opposite effects, but their therapeutic development was halted due to neuropsychiatric side effects. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) also promotes liver fibrosis and its underlying pathologies, but iNOS inhibitors tested to date showed limited therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory diseases. Here, we introduce a peripherally restricted, orally bioavailable CB1R antagonist, which accumulates in liver to release an iNOS inhibitory leaving group. In mouse models of fibrosis induced by CCl4 or bile duct ligation, the hybrid CB1R/iNOS antagonist surpassed the antifibrotic efficacy of the CB1R antagonist rimonabant or the iNOS inhibitor 1400W, without inducing anxiety-like behaviors or CB1R occupancy in the CNS. The hybrid inhibitor also targeted CB1R-independent, iNOS-mediated profibrotic pathways, including increased PDGF, Nlrp3/Asc3, and integrin αvβ6 signaling, as judged by its ability to inhibit these pathways in cnr1–/– but not in nos2–/– mice. Additionally, it was able to slow fibrosis progression and to attenuate established fibrosis. Thus, dual-target peripheral CB1R/iNOS antagonists have therapeutic potential in liver fibrosis.
Resat Cinar, Malliga R. Iyer, Ziyi Liu, Zongxian Cao, Tony Jourdan, Katalin Erdelyi, Grzegorz Godlewski, Gergő Szanda, Jie Liu, Joshua K. Park, Bani Mukhopadhyay, Avi Z. Rosenberg, Jeih-San Lieow, Robin G. Lorenz, Pal Pacher, Robert B. Innis, George Kunos
The autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Molecular pathways that are disrupted downstream of SMN therefore represent potentially attractive therapeutic targets for SMA. Here, we demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of ubiquitin pathways disrupted as a consequence of SMN depletion, by increasing levels of one key ubiquitination enzyme (ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 [UBA1]), represents a viable approach for treating SMA. Loss of UBA1 was a conserved response across mouse and zebrafish models of SMA as well as in patient induced pluripotent stem cell–derive motor neurons. Restoration of UBA1 was sufficient to rescue motor axon pathology and restore motor performance in SMA zebrafish. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9–UBA1 (AAV9-UBA1) gene therapy delivered systemic increases in UBA1 protein levels that were well tolerated over a prolonged period in healthy control mice. Systemic restoration of UBA1 in SMA mice ameliorated weight loss, increased survival and motor performance, and improved neuromuscular and organ pathology. AAV9-UBA1 therapy was also sufficient to reverse the widespread molecular perturbations in ubiquitin homeostasis that occur during SMA. We conclude that UBA1 represents a safe and effective therapeutic target for the treatment of both neuromuscular and systemic aspects of SMA.
Rachael A. Powis, Evangelia Karyka, Penelope Boyd, Julien Côme, Ross A. Jones, Yinan Zheng, Eva Szunyogova, Ewout J.N. Groen, Gillian Hunter, Derek Thomson, Thomas M. Wishart, Catherina G. Becker, Simon H. Parson, Cécile Martinat, Mimoun Azzouz, Thomas H. Gillingwater
Low-grade chronic inflammation is a key etiological phenomenon responsible for the initiation and perpetuation of obesity and diabetes. Novel therapeutic approaches that can specifically target inflammatory pathways are needed to avert this looming epidemic of metabolic disorders. Genetic and chemical inhibition of SH2-containing inositol 5′ phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) has been associated with systemic expansion of immunoregulatory cells that promote a lean-body state; however, SHIP1 function in immunometabolism has never been assessed. This led us to investigate the role of SHIP1 in metabolic disorders during excess caloric intake in mice. Using a small-molecule inhibitor of SHIP1 (SHIPi), here we show that SHIPi treatment in mice significantly reduces body weight and fat content, improves control of blood glucose and insulin sensitivity, and increases energy expenditure, despite continued consumption of a high-fat diet. Additionally, SHIPi reduces age-associated fat in mice. We found that SHIPi treatment reverses diet-associated obesity by attenuating inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). SHIPi treatment increases IL-4–producing eosinophils in VAT and consequently increases both alternatively activated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In addition, SHIPi decreases the number of IFN-γ–producing T cells and NK cells in VAT. Thus, SHIPi represents an approach that permits control of obesity and diet-induced metabolic syndrome without apparent toxicity.
Neetu Srivastava, Sonia Iyer, Raki Sudan, Christie Youngs, Robert W. Engelman, Kyle T. Howard, Christopher M. Russo, John D. Chisholm, William G. Kerr
Cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) expressing the ISL1-LIM–homeodomain transcription factor contribute developmentally to cardiomyocytes in all 4 chambers of the heart. Here, we show that ISL1-CPCs can be applied to myocardial regeneration following injury. We used a rapid 3D methylcellulose approach to form murine and human ISL1-CPC spheroids that engrafted after myocardial infarction in murine hearts, where they differentiated into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, integrating into the myocardium and forming new blood vessels. ISL1-CPC spheroid–treated mice exhibited reduced infarct area and increased blood vessel formation compared with control animals. Moreover, left ventricular (LV) contractile function was significantly better in mice transplanted with ISL1-CPCs 4 weeks after injury than that in control animals. These results provide proof-of-concept of a cardiac repair strategy employing ISL1-CPCs that, based on our previous lineage-tracing studies, are committed to forming heart tissue, in combination with a robust methylcellulose spheroid–based delivery approach.
Oscar Bartulos, Zhen Wu Zhuang, Yan Huang, Nicole Mikush, Carol Suh, Alda Bregasi, Lin Wang, William Chang, Diane S. Krause, Lawrence H. Young, Jordan S. Pober, Yibing Qyang
The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies is limited by the difficulty in suppressing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without compromising graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. We previously showed that RAS/MEK/ERK signaling depends on memory differentiation in human T cells, which confers susceptibility to selective inhibition of naive T cells. Actually, antineoplastic MEK inhibitors selectively suppress alloreactive T cells, sparing virus-specific T cells in vitro. Here, we show that trametinib, a MEK inhibitor clinically approved for melanoma, suppresses GVHD safely without affecting GVT effects in vivo. Trametinib prolonged survival of GVHD mice and attenuated GVHD symptoms and pathology in the gut and skin. It inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expansion of donor T cells, sparing Tregs and B cells. Although high-dose trametinib inhibited myeloid cell engraftment, low-dose trametinib suppressed GVHD without severe adverse events. Notably, trametinib facilitated the survival of mice transplanted with allogeneic T cells and P815 tumor cells with no residual P815 cells observed in the livers and spleens, whereas tacrolimus resulted in P815 expansion. These results confirm that trametinib selectively suppresses GVHD-inducing T cells while sparing antitumor T cells in vivo, which makes it a promising candidate for translational studies aimed at preventing or treating GVHD.
Hidekazu Itamura, Takero Shindo, Isao Tawara, Yasushi Kubota, Ryusho Kariya, Seiji Okada, Krishna V. Komanduri, Shinya Kimura
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