Mitophagy occurs during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and limits oxidative stress and injury. Mitochondrial turnover was assessed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Paired biopsies of right atrial appendage before initiation and after weaning from CPB were processed for protein analysis, mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA:nucDNA ratio), mtDNA damage, mRNA, and polysome profiling. Mitophagy in the post-CPB samples was evidenced by decreased levels of mitophagy adapters NDP52 and optineurin in whole tissue lysate, decreased Opa1 long form, and translocation of Parkin to the mitochondrial fraction. PCR analysis of mtDNA comparing amplification of short vs. long segments of mtDNA revealed increased damage following cardiac surgery. Surprisingly, a marked increase in several mitochondria-specific protein markers and mtDNA:nucDNA ratio was observed, consistent with increased mitochondrial biogenesis. mRNA analysis suggested that mitochondrial biogenesis was traniscription independent and likely driven by increased translation of existing mRNAs. These findings demonstrate in humans that both mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis occur during cardiac surgery involving CPB. We suggest that mitophagy is balanced by mitochondrial biogenesis during I/R stress experienced during surgery. Mitigating mtDNA damage and elucidating mechanisms regulating mitochondrial turnover will lead to interventions to improve outcome after I/R in the setting of heart disease.
Allen M. Andres, Kyle C. Tucker, Amandine Thomas, David J.R. Taylor, David Sengstock, Salik M. Jahania, Reza Dabir, Somayeh Pourpirali, Jamelle A. Brown, David G. Westbrook, Scott W. Ballinger, Robert M. Mentzer Jr., Roberta A. Gottlieb
It remains unclear how perturbations in cardiomyocyte sarcomere function alter postnatal heart development. We utilized murine models that allowed manipulation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) expression at critical stages of cardiac ontogeny to study the response of the postnatal heart to disrupted sarcomere function. We discovered that the hyperplastic to hypertrophic transition phase of mammalian heart development was altered in mice lacking MYBPC3 and this was the critical period for subsequent development of cardiomyopathy. Specifically, MYBPC3-null hearts developed evidence of increased cardiomyocyte endoreplication, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of cell cycle stimulatory cyclins and increased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Interestingly, this response was self-limited at later developmental time points by an upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. These results provide valuable insights into how alterations in sarcomere protein function modify postnatal heart development and highlight the potential for targeting cell cycle regulatory pathways to counteract cardiomyopathic stimuli.
Benjamin R. Nixon, Alexandra F. Williams, Michael S. Glennon, Alejandro E. de Feria, Sara C. Sebag, H. Scott Baldwin, Jason R. Becker
BACKGROUND. In dilated cardiomyopathies (DCMs) changes in expression of protein-coding genes are associated with reverse remodeling, and these changes can be regulated by microRNAs (miRs). We tested the general hypothesis that dynamic changes in myocardial miR expression are predictive of β-blocker–associated reverse remodeling.
METHODS. Forty-three idiopathic DCM patients (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 0.24 ± 0.09) were treated with β-blockers. Serial ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsies were performed at baseline, and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. Changes in RT-PCR (candidate miRs) or array-measured miRs were compared based on the presence (R) or absence (NR) of a reverse-remodeling response, and a miR-mRNA-function pathway analysis (PA) was performed.
RESULTS. At 3 months, 2 candidate miRs were selectively changed in Rs, decreases in miR-208a-3p and miR-591. PA revealed changes in miR-mRNA interactions predictive of decreased apoptosis and myocardial cell death. At 12 months, 5 miRs exhibited selective changes in Rs (decreases in miR-208a-3p, -208b-3p, 21-5p, and 199a-5p; increase in miR-1-3p). PA predicted decreases in apoptosis, cardiac myocyte cell death, hypertrophy, and heart failure, with increases in contractile and overall cardiac functions.
CONCLUSIONS. In DCMs, myocardial miRs predict the time-dependent reverse-remodeling response to β-blocker treatment, and likely regulate the expression of remodeling-associated miRs.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01798992.
FUNDING. NIH 2R01 HL48013, 1R01 HL71118 (Bristow, PI); sponsored research agreements from Glaxo-SmithKline and AstraZeneca (Bristow, PI); NIH P20 HL101435 (Lowes, Port multi-PD/PI); sponsored research agreement from Miragen Therapeutics (Port, PI).
Carmen C. Sucharov, David P. Kao, J. David Port, Anis Karimpour-Fard, Robert A. Quaife, Wayne Minobe, Karin Nunley, Brian D. Lowes, Edward M. Gilbert, Michael R. Bristow
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) accelerates heart rate, increases cardiac contractility, and constricts resistance vessels. The activity of SNS efferent nerves is generated by a complex neural network containing neurons and glia. Gq G protein–coupled receptor (Gq-GPCR) signaling in glial fibrillary acidic protein–expressing (GFAP+) glia in the central nervous system supports neuronal function and regulates neuronal activity. It is unclear how Gq-GPCR signaling in GFAP+ glia affects the activity of sympathetic neurons or contributes to SNS-regulated cardiovascular functions. In this study, we investigated whether Gq-GPCR activation in GFAP+ glia modulates the regulatory effect of the SNS on the heart; transgenic mice expressing Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) (hM3Dq) selectively in GFAP+ glia were used to address this question in vivo. We found that acute Gq-GPCR activation in peripheral GFAP+ glia significantly accelerated heart rate and increased left ventricle contraction. Pharmacological experiments suggest that the glial-induced cardiac changes were due to Gq-GPCR activation in satellite glial cells within the sympathetic ganglion; this activation led to increased norepinephrine (NE) release and beta-1 adrenergic receptor activation within the heart. Chronic glial Gq-GPCR activation led to hypotension in female
Alison Xiaoqiao Xie, Jakovin J. Lee, Ken D. McCarthy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common heart disease with a prevalence of 1 in 500 in the general population. Several mutations in genes encoding cardiac proteins have been found in HCM patients, but these changes do not predict occurrence or prognosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying HCM remain largely elusive. Here we show that cardiac expression of vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) is reduced in a subset of HCM patients. In a mouse model, muscle-specific loss of Vps34 led to HCM-like manifestations and sudden death. Vps34-deficient hearts exhibited abnormal histopathologies, including myofibrillar disarray and aggregates containing αB-crystallin (CryAB). These features result from a block in the ESCRT-mediated proteolysis that normally degrades K63-polyubiquitinated CryAB. CryAB deposition was also found in myocardial specimens from a subset of HCM patients whose hearts showed decreased Vps34. Our results identify disruption of the previously unknown Vps34-CryAB axis as a potentially novel etiology of HCM.
Hirotaka Kimura, Satoshi Eguchi, Junko Sasaki, Keiji Kuba, Hiroki Nakanishi, Shunsuke Takasuga, Masakazu Yamazaki, Akiteru Goto, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Hiroshi Itoh, Yumiko Imai, Akira Suzuki, Noboru Mizushima, Takehiko Sasaki
Mechanical complications of myocardial infarction (MI) are often fatal. Little is known about endogenous factors that predispose to myocardial rupture after MI. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (CD39) could be a critical mediator of propensity to myocardial rupture after MI due to its role in modulating inflammation and thrombosis. Using a model of permanent coronary artery ligation, rupture was virtually abrogated in
Nadia R. Sutton, Takanori Hayasaki, Matthew C. Hyman, Anuli C. Anyanwu, Hui Liao, Danica Petrovic-Djergovic, Linda Badri, Amy E. Baek, Natalie Walker, Keigo Fukase, Yogendra Kanthi, Scott H. Visovatti, Ellen L. Horste, Jessica J. Ray, Sascha N. Goonewardena, David J. Pinsky
Three-dimensional cardiac mapping is important for optimal visualization of the heart during cardiac ablation for the treatment of certain arrhythmias. However, many hospitals and clinics worldwide cannot afford the high cost of the current mapping systems. We set out to determine if, using predefined algorithms, comparable 3D cardiac maps could be created by a new device that relies on data generated from single-plane fluoroscopy and patient recording and monitoring systems, without the need for costly equipment, infrastructure changes, or specialized catheters. The study included phantom and animal experiments to compare the prototype test device, Navik 3D, with the existing CARTO 3 System. The primary endpoint directly compared: (a) the 3D distance between the Navik 3D–simulated ablation location and the back-projected ground truth location of the pacing and mapping catheter electrode, and (b) the same distance for CARTO. The study’s primary objective was considered met if the 95% confidence lower limit was greater than 0.75% for the Navik 3D–CARTO difference between the 2 distances, or less than or equal to 2 mm. Study results showed that the Navik 3D performance was equivalent to the CARTO system, and that accurate 3D cardiac maps can be created using data from equipment that already exists in all electrophysiology labs.
Jasbir Sra, David Krum, Indrajit Choudhuri, Barry Belanger, Mark Palma, Donald Brodnick, Daniel B. Rowe
Psoriasis patients are at increased risk of heart attack and stroke and have elevated MRP8/14 levels that predict heart attack. The KC-Tie2 psoriasiform mouse model exhibits elevated MRP8/14 and is prothrombotic.
Yunmei Wang, Jackelyn B. Golden, Yi Fritz, Xiufen Zhang, Doina Diaconu, Maya I. Camhi, Huiyun Gao, Sean M. Dawes, Xianying Xing, Santhi K. Ganesh, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Daniel I. Simon, Thomas S. McCormick, Nicole L. Ward
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common autosomal dominant disorder that presents with short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and cardiac abnormalities. Activating mutations in the
Jae-Sung Yi, Yan Huang, Andrea T. Kwaczala, Ivana Y. Kuo, Barbara E. Ehrlich, Stuart G. Campbell, Frank J. Giordano, Anton M. Bennett
Bcl-2–associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed at high levels in the heart and the vasculature and in many cancers. While altered BAG3 expression has been associated with cardiac dysfunction, its role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is unknown. To test the hypothesis that BAG3 protects the heart from reperfusion injury, in vivo cardiac function was measured in hearts infected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9–expressing (rAAV9-expressing) BAG3 or GFP and subjected to I/R. To elucidate molecular mechanisms by which BAG3 protects against I/R injury, neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes (NMVCs) in which BAG3 levels were modified by adenovirus expressing (Ad-expressing) BAG3 or siBAG3 were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). H/R significantly reduced NMVC BAG3 levels, which were associated with enhanced expression of apoptosis markers, decreased expression of autophagy markers, and reduced autophagy flux. The deleterious effects of H/R on apoptosis and autophagy were recapitulated by knockdown of BAG3 with Ad-siBAG3 and were rescued by Ad-BAG3. In vivo, treatment of mice with rAAV9-BAG3 prior to I/R significantly decreased infarct size and improved left ventricular function when compared with mice receiving rAAV9-GFP and improved markers of autophagy and apoptosis. These findings suggest that BAG3 may provide a therapeutic target in patients undergoing reperfusion after myocardial infarction.
Feifei Su, Valerie D. Myers, Tijana Knezevic, JuFang Wang, Erhe Gao, Muniswamy Madesh, Farzaneh G. Tahrir, Manish K. Gupta, Jennifer Gordon, Joseph Rabinowitz, Frederick V. Ramsey, Douglas G. Tilley, Kamel Khalili, Joseph Y. Cheung, Arthur M. Feldman
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