Mechanisms of atherogenesis have been studied extensively in genetically engineered mice with disturbed cholesterol metabolism such as those lacking either the LDL receptor (
Srinivas D. Sithu, Marina V. Malovichko, Krista A. Riggs, Nalinie S. Wickramasinghe, Millicent G. Winner, Abhinav Agarwal, Rihab E. Hamed-Berair, Anuradha Kalani, Daniel W. Riggs, Aruni Bhatnagar, Sanjay Srivastava
Combined pulmonary insufficiency (PI) and stenosis (PS) is a common long-term sequela after repair of many forms of congenital heart disease, causing progressive right ventricular (RV) dilation and failure. Little is known of the mechanisms underlying this combination of preload and afterload stressors. We developed a murine model of PI and PS (PI+PS) to identify clinically relevant pathways and biomarkers of disease progression. Diastolic dysfunction was induced (restrictive RV filling, elevated RV end-diastolic pressures) at 1 month after generation of PI+PS and progressed to systolic dysfunction (decreased RV shortening) by 3 months. RV fibrosis progressed from 1 month (4.4% ± 0.4%) to 3 months (9.2% ± 1%), along with TGF-β signaling and tissue expression of profibrotic miR-21. Although plasma miR-21 was upregulated with diastolic dysfunction, it was downregulated with the onset of systolic dysfunction), correlating with RV fibrosis. Plasma miR-21 in children with PI+PS followed a similar pattern. A model of combined RV volume and pressure overload recapitulates the evolution of RV failure unique to patients with prior RV outflow tract surgery. This progression was characterized by enhanced TGF-β and miR-21 signaling. miR-21 may serve as a plasma biomarker of RV failure, with decreased expression heralding the need for valve replacement.
Sushma Reddy, Dong-Qing Hu, Mingming Zhao, Eddie Blay Jr., Nefthi Sandeep, Sang-Ging Ong, Gwanghyun Jung, Kristina B. Kooiker, Michael Coronado, Giovanni Fajardo, Daniel Bernstein
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal genetic arrhythmia that manifests syncope or sudden death in children and young adults under stress conditions. CPVT patients often present bradycardia and sino-atrial node (SAN) dysfunction. However, the mechanism remains unclear. We analyzed SAN function in two CPVT families and in a novel knock-in (KI) mouse model carrying the RyR2R420Q mutation. Humans and KI mice presented slower resting heart rate. Accordingly, the rate of spontaneous intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) transients was slower in KI mouse SAN preparations than in WT, without any significant alteration in the “funny” current (
Yue Yi Wang, Pietro Mesirca, Elena Marqués-Sulé, Alexandra Zahradnikova Jr., Olivier Villejoubert, Pilar D’Ocon, Cristina Ruiz, Diana Domingo, Esther Zorio, Matteo E. Mangoni, Jean-Pierre Benitah, Ana María Gómez
Wiebke Arlt, Katharina Lang, Alice J. Sitch, Anna S. Dietz, Yara Rhayem, Irina Bancos, Annette Feuchtinger, Vasileios Chortis, Lorna C. Gilligan, Philippe Ludwig, Anna Riester, Evelyn Asbach, Beverly A. Hughes, Donna M. O’Neil, Martin Bidlingmaier, Jeremy W. Tomlinson, Zaki K. Hassan-Smith, D. Aled Rees, Christian Adolf, Stefanie Hahner, Marcus Quinkler, Tanja Dekkers, Jaap Deinum, Michael Biehl, Brian G. Keevil, Cedric H.L. Shackleton, Jonathan J. Deeks, Axel K. Walch, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
Mutations in the
Milena B. Furtado, Julia C. Wilmanns, Anjana Chandran, Joelle Perera, Olivia Hon, Christine Biben, Taylor J. Willow, Hieu T. Nim, Gurpreet Kaur, Stephanie Simonds, Qizhu Wu, David Willians, Ekaterina Salimova, Nicolas Plachta, James M. Denegre, Stephen A. Murray, Diane Fatkin, Michael Cowley, James T. Pearson, David Kaye, Mirana Ramialison, Richard P. Harvey, Nadia A. Rosenthal, Mauro W. Costa
While strongly implicated in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), considerable controversy exists regarding norepinephrine transporter (
Abdul Waheed Khan, Mark Ziemann, Susan J. Corcoran, Harikrishnan K.N, Jun Okabe, Haloom Rafehi, Scott S. Maxwell, Murray D. Esler, Assam El-Osta
Noonan syndrome (NS; MIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant disorder and a member of a family of developmental disorders termed “RASopathies,” which are caused mainly by gain-of-function mutations in genes encoding RAS/MAPK signaling pathway proteins. Whole exome sequencing (WES) and trio-based genomic triangulation of a 15-year-old female with a clinical diagnosis of NS and concomitant cardiac hypertrophy and her unaffected parents identified a de novo variant in
Erin M. Higgins, J. Martijn Bos, Heather Mason-Suares, David J. Tester, Jaeger P. Ackerman, Calum A. MacRae, Katia Sol-Church, Karen W. Gripp, Raul Urrutia, Michael J. Ackerman
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a multifaceted vascular disease where development and severity are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Over the past decade, there has been an acceleration of the discovery of molecular effectors that mediate PH pathogenesis, including large numbers of microRNA molecules that are expressed in pulmonary vascular cell types and exert system-wide regulatory functions in all aspects of vascular health and disease. Due to the inherent pleiotropy, overlap, and redundancy of these molecules, it has been challenging to define their integrated effects on overall disease manifestation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the roles of microRNAs in PH with an emphasis on potential methods to discern the hierarchical motifs governing their multifunctional and interconnected activities. Deciphering this higher order of regulatory structure will be crucial for overcoming the challenges of developing these molecules as biomarkers or therapeutic targets, in isolation or combination.
Vinny Negi, Stephen Y. Chan
Mitophagy occurs during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and limits oxidative stress and injury. Mitochondrial turnover was assessed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Paired biopsies of right atrial appendage before initiation and after weaning from CPB were processed for protein analysis, mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA:nucDNA ratio), mtDNA damage, mRNA, and polysome profiling. Mitophagy in the post-CPB samples was evidenced by decreased levels of mitophagy adapters NDP52 and optineurin in whole tissue lysate, decreased Opa1 long form, and translocation of Parkin to the mitochondrial fraction. PCR analysis of mtDNA comparing amplification of short vs. long segments of mtDNA revealed increased damage following cardiac surgery. Surprisingly, a marked increase in several mitochondria-specific protein markers and mtDNA:nucDNA ratio was observed, consistent with increased mitochondrial biogenesis. mRNA analysis suggested that mitochondrial biogenesis was traniscription independent and likely driven by increased translation of existing mRNAs. These findings demonstrate in humans that both mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis occur during cardiac surgery involving CPB. We suggest that mitophagy is balanced by mitochondrial biogenesis during I/R stress experienced during surgery. Mitigating mtDNA damage and elucidating mechanisms regulating mitochondrial turnover will lead to interventions to improve outcome after I/R in the setting of heart disease.
Allen M. Andres, Kyle C. Tucker, Amandine Thomas, David J.R. Taylor, David Sengstock, Salik M. Jahania, Reza Dabir, Somayeh Pourpirali, Jamelle A. Brown, David G. Westbrook, Scott W. Ballinger, Robert M. Mentzer Jr., Roberta A. Gottlieb
It remains unclear how perturbations in cardiomyocyte sarcomere function alter postnatal heart development. We utilized murine models that allowed manipulation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) expression at critical stages of cardiac ontogeny to study the response of the postnatal heart to disrupted sarcomere function. We discovered that the hyperplastic to hypertrophic transition phase of mammalian heart development was altered in mice lacking MYBPC3 and this was the critical period for subsequent development of cardiomyopathy. Specifically, MYBPC3-null hearts developed evidence of increased cardiomyocyte endoreplication, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of cell cycle stimulatory cyclins and increased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Interestingly, this response was self-limited at later developmental time points by an upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. These results provide valuable insights into how alterations in sarcomere protein function modify postnatal heart development and highlight the potential for targeting cell cycle regulatory pathways to counteract cardiomyopathic stimuli.
Benjamin R. Nixon, Alexandra F. Williams, Michael S. Glennon, Alejandro E. de Feria, Sara C. Sebag, H. Scott Baldwin, Jason R. Becker
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