Restoring blood flow after myocardial infarction (MI) is essential for survival of existing and newly regenerated tissue. Endogenous vascular repair processes are deployed following injury but are poorly understood. We sought to determine whether developmental mechanisms of coronary vessel formation are intrinsically reactivated in the adult mouse after MI. Using pulse-chase genetic lineage tracing, we establish that de novo vessel formation constitutes a substantial component of the neovascular response, with apparent cellular contributions from the endocardium and coronary sinus. The adult heart reverts to its former hypertrabeculated state and repeats the process of compaction, which may facilitate endocardium-derived neovascularization. The capacity for angiogenic sprouting of the coronary sinus vein, the adult derivative of the sinus venosus, may also reflect its embryonic origin. The quiescent epicardium is reactivated and, while direct cellular contribution to new vessels is minimal, it supports the directional expansion of the neovessel network toward the infarcted myocardium. Thymosin β4, a peptide with roles in vascular development, was required for endocardial compaction, epicardial vessel expansion, and smooth muscle cell recruitment. Insight into pathways that regulate endogenous vascular repair, drawing on comparisons with development, may reveal novel targets for therapeutically enhancing neovascularization.
Karina N. Dubé, Tonia M. Thomas, Sonali Munshaw, Mala Rohling, Paul R. Riley, Nicola Smart
Currently, there is a limited ability to interactively study developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology. We therefore combined light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) with virtual reality (VR) to provide a hybrid platform for 3D architecture and time-dependent cardiac contractile function characterization. By taking advantage of the rapid acquisition, high axial resolution, low phototoxicity, and high fidelity in 3D and 4D (3D spatial + 1D time or spectra), this VR-LSFM hybrid methodology enables interactive visualization and quantification otherwise not available by conventional methods, such as routine optical microscopes. We hereby demonstrate multiscale applicability of VR-LSFM to (a) interrogate skin fibroblasts interacting with a hyaluronic acid–based hydrogel, (b) navigate through the endocardial trabecular network during zebrafish development, and (c) localize gene therapy-mediated potassium channel expression in adult murine hearts. We further combined our batch intensity normalized segmentation algorithm with deformable image registration to interface a VR environment with imaging computation for the analysis of cardiac contraction. Thus, the VR-LSFM hybrid platform demonstrates an efficient and robust framework for creating a user-directed microenvironment in which we uncovered developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology with high spatiotemporal resolution.
Yichen Ding, Arash Abiri, Parinaz Abiri, Shuoran Li, Chih-Chiang Chang, Kyung In Baek, Jeffrey J. Hsu, Elias Sideris, Yilei Li, Juhyun Lee, Tatiana Segura, Thao P. Nguyen, Alexander Bui, René R. Sevag Packard, Peng Fei, Tzung K. Hsiai
An ascending aortic aneurysm (AscAA) is a life-threatening disease whose molecular basis is poorly understood. Mutations in NOTCH1 have been linked to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), which is associated with AscAA. Here, we describe a potentially novel role for Notch1 in AscAA. We found that Notch1 haploinsufficiency exacerbated the aneurysmal aortic root dilation seen in the Marfan syndrome mouse model and that heterozygous deletion of Notch1 in the second heart field (SHF) lineage recapitulated this exacerbated phenotype. Additionally, Notch1+/– mice in a predominantly 129S6 background develop aortic root dilation, indicating that loss of Notch1 is sufficient to cause AscAA. RNA sequencing analysis of the Notch1.129S6+/– aortic root demonstrated gene expression changes consistent with AscAA. These findings are the first to our knowledge to demonstrate an SHF lineage–specific role for Notch1 in AscAA and suggest that genes linked to the development of BAV may also contribute to the associated aortopathy.
Sara N. Koenig, Stephanie LaHaye, James D. Feller, Patrick Rowland, Kan N. Hor, Aaron J. Trask, Paul M.L. Janssen, Freddy Radtke, Brenda Lilly, Vidu Garg
Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality, and they are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Environmental risk factors may contribute to birth defects in genetically susceptible infants by altering critical molecular pathways during embryogenesis, but experimental evidence for gene-environment interactions is limited. Fetal hyperglycemia associated with maternal diabetes results in a 5-fold increased risk of congenital heart disease (CHD), but the molecular basis for this correlation is unknown. Here, we show that the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on cardiac development are sensitized by haploinsufficiency of Notch1, a key transcriptional regulator known to cause CHD. Using ATAC-seq, we found that hyperglycemia decreased chromatin accessibility at the endothelial NO synthase (Nos3) locus, resulting in reduced NO synthesis. Transcription of Jarid2, a regulator of histone methyltransferase complexes, was increased in response to reduced NO, and this upregulation directly resulted in inhibition of Notch1 expression to levels below a threshold necessary for normal heart development. We extended these findings using a Drosophila maternal diabetic model that revealed the evolutionary conservation of this interaction and the Jarid2-mediated mechanism. These findings identify a gene-environment interaction between maternal hyperglycemia and Notch signaling and support a model in which environmental factors cause birth defects in genetically susceptible infants.
Madhumita Basu, Jun-Yi Zhu, Stephanie LaHaye, Uddalak Majumdar, Kai Jiao, Zhe Han, Vidu Garg
GPR81 is a receptor for the metabolic intermediate lactate with an established role in regulating adipocyte lipolysis. Potentially novel GPR81 agonists were identified that suppressed fasting plasma free fatty acid levels in rodents and in addition improved insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Unexpectedly, the agonists simultaneously induced hypertension in rodents, including wild-type, but not GPR81-deficient mice. Detailed cardiovascular studies in anesthetized dogs showed that the pressor effect was associated with heterogenous effects on vascular resistance among the measured tissues: increasing in the kidney while remaining unchanged in hindlimb and heart. Studies in rats revealed that the pressor effect could be blocked, and the renal resistance effect at least partially blocked, with pharmacological antagonism of endothelin receptors. In situ hybridization localized GPR81 to the microcirculation, notably afferent arterioles of the kidney. In conclusion, these results provide evidence for a potentially novel role of GPR81 agonism in blood pressure control and regulation of renal vascular resistance including modulation of a known vasoeffector mechanism, the endothelin system. In addition, support is provided for the concept of fatty acid lowering as a means of improving insulin sensitivity.
Kristina Wallenius, Pia Thalén, Jan-Arne Björkman, Petra Johannesson, John Wiseman, Gerhard Böttcher, Ola Fjellström, Nicholas D. Oakes
Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as periodontal disease, associate with adverse wound healing in response to myocardial infarction (MI). The goal of this study was to elucidate the molecular basis for impaired cardiac wound healing in the setting of periodontal-induced chronic inflammation. Causal network analysis of 168 inflammatory and extracellular matrix genes revealed that chronic inflammation induced by a subseptic dose of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exacerbated infarct expression of the proinflammatory cytokine Ccl12. Ccl12 prevented initiation of the reparative response by prolonging inflammation and inhibiting fibroblast conversion to myofibroblasts, resulting in diminished scar formation. Macrophage secretion of Ccl12 directly impaired fibronectin and collagen deposition and indirectly stimulated collagen degradation through upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. In post-MI patients, circulating LPS levels strongly associated with the Ccl12 homologue monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Patients with LPS levels ≥ 1 endotoxin units (EU)/ml (subseptic endotoxemia) at the time of hospitalization had increased end diastolic and systolic dimensions compared with post-MI patients with < 1 EU/ml, indicating that low yet pathological concentrations of circulating LPS adversely impact post-MI left ventricle (LV) remodeling by increasing MCP-1. Our study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that chronic inflammation inhibits reparative fibroblast activation and generates an unfavorable cardiac–healing environment through Ccl12-dependent mechanisms.
Kristine Y. DeLeon-Pennell, Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer, Osasere K. Ero, Courtney A. Cates, Elizabeth R. Flynn, Presley L. Cannon, Mira Jung, De’Aries Shannon, Michael R. Garrett, William Buchanan, Michael E. Hall, Yonggang Ma, Merry L. Lindsey
BACKGROUND. Neuronal remodeling in human heart disease is not well understood. METHODS. Stellate ganglia from patients with cardiomyopathy (CMY) and refractory ventricular arrhythmias undergoing cardiac sympathetic denervation (n = 8), and from organ donors with normal hearts (n = 8) collected at the time of organ procurement were compared. Clinical data on all subjects were reviewed. Electron microscopy (EM), histologic, and immunohistochemical assessments of neurotransmitter profiles, glial activation and distribution, and lipofuscin deposition, a marker of oxidative stress, were quantified. RESULTS. In CMY specimens, lipofuscin deposits were larger, and present in more neurons (26.3% ± 6.3% vs. 16.7% ± 7.6%, P < 0.043), than age-matched controls. EM analysis revealed extensive mitochondrial degeneration in CMY specimens. T cell (CD3+) infiltration was identified in 60% of the CMY samples, with one case having large inflammatory nodules, while none were identified in controls. Myeloperoxidase-immunoreactive neutrophils were also identified at parenchymal sites distinct from inflammatory foci in CMY ganglia, but not in controls. The adrenergic phenotype of pathologic samples revealed a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase staining intensity compared with controls. Evaluation of cholinergic phenotype by staining for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter revealed a low but comparable number of cholinergic neurons in ganglia from both groups and demonstrated that preganglionic cholinergic innervation was maintained in CMY ganglia. S100 staining (a glial cell marker) demonstrated no differences in glial distribution and relationship to neurons; however, glial activation demonstrated by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining was substantially increased in pathologic specimens compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS. Stellate ganglia from patients with CMY and arrhythmias demonstrate inflammation, neurochemical remodeling, oxidative stress, and satellite glial cell activation. These changes likely contribute to excessive and dysfunctional efferent sympathetic tone, and provide a rationale for sympathectomy as a treatment for arrhythmias in this population. FUNDING. This work was made possible by support from NIH grants HL125730 to OAA, GM107949 to DBH, and HL084261 and OT2OD023848 to KS.
Olujimi A. Ajijola, Donald B. Hoover, Thomas M. Simerly, T. Christopher Brown, Jane Yanagawa, Reshma M. Biniwale, Jay M. Lee, Ali Sadeghi, Negar Khanlou, Jeffrey L. Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
Cardiac hypertrophy, as a response to hemodynamic stress, is associated with cardiac dysfunction and death, but whether hypertrophy itself represents a pathological process remains unclear. Hypertrophy is driven by changes in myocardial gene expression that require the MEF2 family of DNA-binding transcription factors, as well as the nuclear lysine acetyltransferase p300. Here we used genetic and small-molecule probes to determine the effects of preventing MEF2 acetylation on cardiac adaptation to stress. Both nonacetylatable MEF2 mutants and 8MI, a molecule designed to interfere with MEF2-coregulator binding, prevented hypertrophy in cultured cardiac myocytes. 8MI prevented cardiac hypertrophy in 3 distinct stress models, and reversed established hypertrophy in vivo, associated with normalization of myocardial structure and function. The effects of 8MI were reversible, and did not prevent training effects of swimming. Mechanistically, 8MI blocked stress-induced MEF2 acetylation, nuclear export of class II histone deacetylases HDAC4 and -5, and p300 induction, without impeding HDAC4 phosphorylation. Correspondingly, 8MI transformed the transcriptional response to pressure overload, normalizing almost all 232 genes dysregulated by hemodynamic stress. We conclude that MEF2 acetylation is required for development and maintenance of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, and that blocking MEF2 acetylation can permit recovery from hypertrophy without impairing physiologic adaptation.
Jianqin Wei, Shaurya Joshi, Svetlana Speransky, Christopher Crowley, Nimanthi Jayathilaka, Xiao Lei, Yongqing Wu, David Gai, Sumit Jain, Michael Hoosien, Yan Gao, Lin Chen, Nanette H. Bishopric
Heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide, highlighting a pressing need to identify novel regulators of cardiomyocyte (CM) function that could be therapeutically targeted. The mammalian Hippo/Tead pathway is critical in embryonic cardiac development and perinatal CM proliferation. However, the requirement of Tead1, the transcriptional effector of this pathway, in the adult heart is unknown. Here, we show that tamoxifen-inducible adult CM–specific Tead1 ablation led to lethal acute-onset dilated cardiomyopathy, associated with impairment in excitation-contraction coupling. Mechanistically, we demonstrate Tead1 is a cell-autonomous, direct transcriptional activator of SERCA2a and SR-associated protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit, Inhibitor-1 (I-1). Thus, Tead1 deletion led to a decrease in SERCA2a and I-1 transcripts and protein, with a consequent increase in PP1-activity, resulting in accumulation of dephosphorylated phospholamban (Pln) and decreased SERCA2a activity. Global transcriptomal analysis in Tead1-deleted hearts revealed significant changes in mitochondrial and sarcomere-related pathways. Additional studies demonstrated there was a trend for correlation between protein levels of TEAD1 and I-1, and phosphorylation of PLN, in human nonfailing and failing hearts. Furthermore, TEAD1 activity was required to maintain PLN phosphorylation and expression of SERCA2a and I-1 in human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPS-derived) CMs. To our knowledge, taken together, this demonstrates a nonredundant, novel role of Tead1 in maintaining normal adult heart function.
Ruya Liu, Jeongkyung Lee, Byung S. Kim, Qiongling Wang, Samuel K. Buxton, Nikhil Balasubramanyam, Jean J. Kim, Jianrong Dong, Aijun Zhang, Shumin Li, Anisha A. Gupte, Dale J. Hamilton, James F. Martin, George G. Rodney, Cristian Coarfa, Xander H.T. Wehrens, Vijay K. Yechoor, Mousumi Moulik
Transcriptionally activated monocytes are recruited to the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After AMI in mice and humans, the number of extracellular vesicles (EVs) increased acutely. In humans, EV number correlated closely with the extent of myocardial injury. We hypothesized that EVs mediate splenic monocyte mobilization and program transcription following AMI. Some plasma EVs bear endothelial cell (EC) integrins, and both proinflammatory stimulation of ECs and AMI significantly increased VCAM-1–positive EV release. Injected EC-EVs localized to the spleen and interacted with, and mobilized, splenic monocytes in otherwise naive, healthy animals. Analysis of human plasma EV-associated miRNA showed 12 markedly enriched miRNAs after AMI; functional enrichment analyses identified 1,869 putative mRNA targets, which regulate relevant cellular functions (e.g., proliferation and cell movement). Furthermore, gene ontology termed positive chemotaxis as the most enriched pathway for the miRNA-mRNA targets. Among the identified EV miRNAs, EC-associated miRNA-126-3p and -5p were highly regulated after AMI. miRNA-126-3p and -5p regulate cell adhesion– and chemotaxis-associated genes, including the negative regulator of cell motility, plexin-B2. EC-EV exposure significantly downregulated plexin-B2 mRNA in monocytes and upregulated motility integrin ITGB2. These findings identify EVs as a possible novel signaling pathway by linking ischemic myocardium with monocyte mobilization and transcriptional activation following AMI.
Naveed Akbar, Janet E. Digby, Thomas J. Cahill, Abhijeet N. Tavare, Alastair L. Corbin, Sushant Saluja, Sam Dawkins, Laurienne Edgar, Nadiia Rawlings, Klemen Ziberna, Eileen McNeill, Oxford Acute Myocardial Infarction (OxAMI) Study, Errin Johnson, Alaa A. Aljabali, Rebecca A. Dragovic, Mala Rohling, T. Grant Belgard, Irina A. Udalova, David R. Greaves, Keith M. Channon, Paul R. Riley, Daniel C. Anthony, Robin P. Choudhury
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