Kawasaki disease (KD), the leading cause of acquired cardiac disease among children, is often associated with myocarditis that may lead to long-term myocardial dysfunction and fibrosis. Although those myocardial changes develop during the acute phase, they may persist for decades and closely correlate with long-term myocardial sequelae. Using the Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract–induced (LCWE-induced) KD vasculitis murine model, we investigated long-term cardiovascular sequelae, such as myocardial dysfunction, fibrosis, and coronary microvascular lesions following adrenergic stimuli after established KD vasculitis. We found that adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol following LCWE-induced KD vasculitis in mice was associated with increased risk of cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, diminished ejection fraction, and increased serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide. Myocardial fibrosis resulting from pharmacologic-induced exercise after KD development was IL-1 signaling dependent and was associated with a significant reduction in myocardial capillary CD31 expression, indicative of a rarefied myocardial capillary bed. These observations suggest that adrenergic stimulation after KD vasculitis may lead to cardiac hypertrophy and bridging fibrosis in the myocardium in the LCWE-induced KD vasculitis mouse model and that this process involves IL-1 signaling and diminished microvascular circulation in the myocardium.
Harry H. Matundan, Jon Sin, Magali Noval Rivas, Michael C. Fishbein, Thomas J. Lehman, Shuang Chen, Roberta A. Gottlieb, Timothy R. Crother, Masanori Abe, Moshe Arditi
Patients with heterozygous missense mutations in the ACTA2 or MYH11 gene are known to exhibit thoracic aortic aneurysm and a risk of early-onset aortic dissection. However, less common phenotypes involving arterial obstruction are also observed, including coronary and cerebrovascular stenotic disease. Herein we implicate the HDAC9 complex in transcriptional silencing of contractile protein–associated genes, known to undergo downregulation in stenotic lesions. Furthermore, neointimal formation was inhibited in HDAC9- or MALAT1-deficient mice with preservation of contractile protein expression. Pharmacologic targeting of the HDAC9 complex through either MALAT1 antisense oligonucleotides or inhibition of the methyltransferase EZH2 (catalytic mediator recruited by the HDAC9 complex) reduced neointimal formation. In conclusion, we report the implication of the HDAC9 complex in stenotic disease and demonstrate that pharmacologic therapy targeting epigenetic complexes can ameliorate arterial obstruction in an experimental system.
Christian L. Lino Cardenas, Chase W. Kessinger, Elizabeth Chou, Brian Ghoshhajra, Ashish S. Yeri, Saumya Das, Neal L. Weintraub, Rajeev Malhotra, Farouc A. Jaffer, Mark E. Lindsay
RNA binding proteins represent an emerging class of proteins with a role in cardiac dysfunction. We show that activation of the RNA binding protein Human antigen R (HuR) is increased in the failing human heart. To determine the functional role of HuR in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, we created an inducible cardiomyocyte-specific HuR deletion mouse, and showed that HuR deletion reduces left ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis while preserving cardiac function in a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model of pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy. Assessment of HuR-dependent changes in global gene expression suggests that the mechanistic basis for this protection occurs through a reduction in fibrotic signaling, specifically through a reduction in transforming growth factor beta (Tgfb) expression. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of HuR at a clinically relevant time point following the initial development of pathological hypertrophy post-TAC also yielded a significant reduction in pathological progression, as marked by a reduction in hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis, and preserved function. In summary, this study demonstrates a functional role for HuR in the progression of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and establishes HuR inhibition as a viable therapeutic approach for pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Lisa C. Green, Sarah R. Anthony, Samuel Slone, Lindsey Lanzillotta, Michelle L. Nieman, Xiaoqing Wu, Nathan Robbins, Shannon M. Jones, Sudeshna Roy, A. Phillip Owens III, Jeffrey Aube, Liang Xu, John N. Lorenz, Burns C. Blaxall, Jack Rubinstein, Joshua B. Benoit, Michael Tranter
Evidence has emerged that the failing heart increases utilization of ketone bodies. We sought to determine whether this fuel shift is adaptive. Mice rendered incapable of oxidizing the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB) in heart exhibited worsened heart failure in response to fasting or a pressure overload/ischemic insult compared to wild-type controls. Increased delivery of 3OHB ameliorated pathologic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice and in a canine pacing model of progressive heart failure. 3OHB was shown to enhance bioenergetic thermodynamics of isolated mitochondria in the context of limiting levels of fatty acids. These results indicate that the heart utilizes 3OHB as a metabolic stress defense and suggest that strategies aimed at increasing ketone delivery to the heart could prove useful in the treatment of heart failure.
Julie L. Horton, Michael T. Davidson, Clara Kurishima, Rick B. Vega, Jeffery C. Powers, Timothy R. Matsuura, Christopher Petucci, E. Douglas Lewandowski, Peter A. Crawford, Deborah M. Muoio, Fabio A. Recchia, Daniel P. Kelly
BACKGROUND. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a deadly disease of the small pulmonary vasculature with an increased prevalence of insulin resistance (IR). Insulin regulates both glucose and lipid homeostasis. We sought to quantify glucose- and lipid-related IR in human PAH, testing the hypothesis that lipoprotein indices are more sensitive indices of IR in PAH. METHODS. Oral glucose tolerance testing in PAH patients and triglyceride-matched (TG-matched) controls and proteomic, metabolomics, and lipoprotein analyses were performed in PAH and controls. Results were validated in an external cohort and in explanted human PAH lungs. RESULTS. PAH patients were similarly glucose intolerant or IR by glucose homeostasis metrics compared with control patients when matched for the metabolic syndrome. Using the insulin-sensitive lipoprotein index, TG/HDL ratio, PAH patients were more commonly IR than controls. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis demonstrated separation between PAH and controls, driven by differences in lipid species. We observed a significant increase in long-chain acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, insulin metabolism–related proteins, and in oxidized LDL receptor 1 (OLR1) in PAH plasma in both a discovery and validation cohort. PAH patients had higher lipoprotein axis–related IR and lipoprotein-based inflammation scores compared with controls. PAH patient lung tissue showed enhanced OLR1 immunostaining within plexiform lesions and oxidized LDL accumulation within macrophages. CONCLUSIONS. IR in PAH is characterized by alterations in lipid and lipoprotein homeostasis axes, manifest by elevated TG/HDL ratio, and elevated circulating medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines and lipoproteins. Oxidized LDL and its receptor OLR1 may play a role in a proinflammatory phenotype in PAH. FUNDING. NIH DK096994, HL060906, UL1 RR024975-01, UL1 TR000445-06, DK020593, P01 HL108800-01A1, and UL1 TR002243; American Heart Association 13FTF16070002.
Anna R. Hemnes, J. Matthew Luther, Christopher J. Rhodes, Jason P. Burgess, James Carlson, Run Fan, Joshua P. Fessel, Niki Fortune, Robert E. Gerszten, Stephen J. Halliday, Rezzan Hekmat, Luke Howard, John H. Newman, Kevin D. Niswender, Meredith E. Pugh, Ivan M. Robbins, Quanhu Sheng, Cyndya A. Shibao, Yu Shyr, Susan Sumner, Megha Talati, John Wharton, Martin R. Wilkins, Fei Ye, Chang Yu, James West, Evan L. Brittain
Exercise and heart disease both induce cardiac remodeling, but only disease causes fibrosis and compromises heart function. The cardioprotective benefits of exercise have been attributed to changes in cardiomyocyte physiology, but the impact of exercise on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) is unknown. Here, RNA-sequencing reveals rapid divergence of CF transcriptional programs during exercise and disease. Among the differentially expressed programs, NRF2-dependent antioxidant genes — including metallothioneins (Mt1 and Mt2) — are induced in CFs during exercise and suppressed by TGF-β/p38 signaling in disease. In vivo, mice lacking Mt1/2 exhibit signs of cardiac dysfunction in exercise, including cardiac fibrosis, vascular rarefaction, and functional decline. Mechanistically, exogenous MTs derived from fibroblasts are taken up by cultured cardiomyocytes, reducing oxidative damage–dependent cell death. Importantly, suppression of MT expression is conserved in human heart failure. Taken together, this study defines the acute transcriptional response of CFs to exercise and disease and reveals a cardioprotective mechanism that is lost in disease.
Janet K. Lighthouse, Ryan M. Burke, Lissette S. Velasquez, Ronald A. Dirkx Jr., Alessandro Aiezza II, Christine S. Moravec, Jeffrey D. Alexis, Alex Rosenberg, Eric M. Small
In heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), the majority of patients have hypomagnesemia, and magnesium (Mg) supplementation has improved cardiac function and insulin resistance. Recently, we have shown that DM can cause cardiac diastolic dysfunction (DD). Therefore, we hypothesized that Mg supplementation would improve diastolic function in DM. High-fat diet–induced diabetic mouse hearts showed increased cardiac DD and hypertrophy. Mice with DM showed a significantly increased E/e’ ratio (the ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity [E] to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity [e’]) in the echocardiogram, left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV), incidence of DD, left ventricular posterior wall thickness in diastole (PWTd), and ratio of heart weight to tibia length (HW/TL) when compared with controls. DM mice also had hypomagnesemia. Ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from DM mice exhibited decreased mitochondrial ATP production, a 1.7- ± 0.2-fold increase of mitochondrial ROS, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. Dietary Mg administration (50 mg/ml in the drinking water) for 6 weeks increased plasma Mg concentration and improved cardiac function. At the cellular level, Mg improved mitochondrial function with increased ATP, decreased mitochondrial ROS and Ca2+ overload, and repolarized mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, Mg supplementation improved mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress, and prevented DD in DM.
Man Liu, Euy-Myoung Jeong, Hong Liu, An Xie, Eui Young So, Guangbin Shi, Go Eun Jeong, Anyu Zhou, Samuel C. Dudley Jr.
Mono-ADP-ribosylation of an (arginine) protein catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 (ART1) — i.e., transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to arginine — is reversed by ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase 1 (ARH1) cleavage of the ADP-ribose–arginine bond. ARH1-deficient mice developed cardiomyopathy with myocardial fibrosis, decreased myocardial function under dobutamine stress, and increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The membrane repair protein TRIM72 was identified as a substrate for ART1 and ARH1; ADP-ribosylated TRIM72 levels were greater in ARH1-deficient mice following ischemia/reperfusion injury. To understand better the role of TRIM72 and ADP-ribosylation, we used C2C12 myocytes. ARH1 knockdown in C2C12 myocytes increased ADP-ribosylation of TRIM72 and delayed wound healing in a scratch assay. Mutant TRIM72 (R207K, R260K) that is not ADP-ribosylated interfered with assembly of TRIM72 repair complexes at a site of laser-induced injury. The regulatory enzymes ART1 and ARH1 and their substrate TRIM72 were found in multiple complexes, which were coimmunoprecipitated from mouse heart lysates. In addition, the mono-ADP-ribosylation inhibitors vitamin K1 and novobiocin inhibited oligomerization of TRIM72, the mechanism by which TRIM72 is recruited to the site of injury. We propose that a mono-ADP-ribosylation cycle involving recruitment of TRIM72 and other regulatory factors to sites of membrane damage is critical for membrane repair and wound healing following myocardial injury.
Hiroko Ishiwata-Endo, Jiro Kato, Akihiko Tonouchi, Youn Wook Chung, Junhui Sun, Linda A. Stevens, Jianfeng Zhu, Angel M. Aponte, Danielle A. Springer, Hong San, Kazuyo Takeda, Zu-Xi Yu, Victoria Hoffmann, Elizabeth Murphy, Joel Moss
The mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) complex mediates acute mitochondrial Ca2+ influx. In skeletal muscle, MCU links Ca2+ signaling to energy production by directly enhancing the activity of key metabolic enzymes in the mitochondria. Here, we examined the role of MCU in skeletal muscle development and metabolic function by generating mouse models for the targeted deletion of Mcu in embryonic, postnatal, and adult skeletal muscle. Loss of Mcu did not affect muscle growth and maturation or otherwise cause pathology. Skeletal muscle–specific deletion of Mcu in mice also did not affect myofiber intracellular Ca2+ handling, but it did inhibit acute mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and mitochondrial respiration stimulated by Ca2+, resulting in reduced acute exercise performance in mice. However, loss of Mcu also resulted in enhanced muscle performance under conditions of fatigue, with a preferential shift toward fatty acid metabolism, resulting in reduced body fat with aging. Together, these results demonstrate that MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ regulation underlies skeletal muscle fuel selection at baseline and under enhanced physiological demands, which affects total homeostatic metabolism.
Jennifer Q. Kwong, Jiuzhou Huo, Michael J. Bround, Justin G. Boyer, Jennifer A. Schwanekamp, Nasab Ghazal, Joshua T. Maxwell, Young C. Jang, Zaza Khuchua, Kevin Shi, Donald M. Bers, Jennifer Davis, Jeffery D. Molkentin
The mechanisms of J wave syndrome (JWS) are incompletely understood. Here, we showed that the concomitant activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) current (IKAS) and inhibition of sodium current by cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amine (CyPPA) recapitulate the phenotypes of JWS in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. CyPPA induced significant J wave elevation and frequent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (SVF), as well as sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and intraventricular conduction delay. IKAS activation by CyPPA resulted in heterogeneous shortening of action potential (AP) duration (APD) and repolarization alternans. CyPPA inhibited cardiac sodium current (INa) and decelerated AP upstroke and intracellular calcium transient. SVFs were typically triggered by short-coupled premature ventricular contractions, initiated with phase 2 reentry and originated more frequently from the right than the left ventricles. Subsequent IKAS blockade by apamin reduced J wave elevation and eliminated SVF. β-Adrenergic stimulation was antiarrhythmic in CyPPA-induced electrical storm. Like CyPPA, hypothermia (32.0°C) also induced J wave elevation and SVF. It facilitated negative calcium-voltage coupling and phase 2 repolarization alternans with spatial and electromechanical discordance, which were ameliorated by apamin. These findings suggest that IKAS activation contributes to the development of JWS in rabbit ventricles.
Mu Chen, Dong-Zhu Xu, Adonis Z. Wu, Shuai Guo, Juyi Wan, Dechun Yin, Shien-Fong Lin, Zhenhui Chen, Michael Rubart-von der Lohe, Thomas H. Everett IV, Zhilin Qu, James N. Weiss, Peng-Sheng Chen
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