Hemostatic defects are treated using coagulation factors; however, clot formation also requires a procoagulant phospholipid (PL) surface. Here, we show that innate immune cell–derived enzymatically oxidized phospholipids (eoxPL) termed hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phospholipids (HETE-PLs) restore hemostasis in human and murine conditions of pathological bleeding. HETE-PLs abolished blood loss in murine hemophilia A and enhanced coagulation in factor VIII- (FVIII-), FIX-, and FX-deficient human plasma . HETE-PLs were decreased in platelets from patients after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To explore molecular mechanisms, the ability of eoxPL to stimulate individual isolated coagulation factor/cofactor complexes was tested in vitro. Extrinsic tenase (FVIIa/tissue factor [TF]), intrinsic tenase (FVIIIa/FIXa), and prothrombinase (FVa/FXa) all were enhanced by both HETE-PEs and HETE-PCs, suggesting a common mechanism involving the fatty acid moiety. In plasma, 9-, 15-, and 12-HETE-PLs were more effective than 5-, 11-, or 8-HETE-PLs, indicating positional isomer specificity. Coagulation was enhanced at lower lipid/factor ratios, consistent with a more concentrated area for protein binding. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed binding of FII and FX to HETE-PEs. HETE-PEs increased membrane curvature and thickness, but not surface charge or homogeneity, possibly suggesting increased accessibility to cations/factors. In summary, innate immune-derived eoxPL enhance calcium-dependent coagulation factor function, and their potential utility in bleeding disorders is proposed.
David A. Slatter, Charles L. Percy, Keith Allen-Redpath, Joshua M. Gajsiewicz, Nick J. Brooks, Aled Clayton, Victoria J. Tyrrell, Marcela Rosas, Sarah N. Lauder, Andrew Watson, Maria Dul, Yoel Garcia-Diaz, Maceler Aldrovandi, Meike Heurich, Judith Hall, James H. Morrissey, Sebastien Lacroix-Desmazes, Sandrine Delignat, P. Vincent Jenkins, Peter W. Collins, Valerie B. O’Donnell
HETE-PLs enhance thrombin generation in the absence of FIX or FXI, or in the absence of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and FVIII combined.