BACKGROUND. The combination of multikinase VEGF inhibitor regorafenib and anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab overcomes intrinsic and acquired resistance in both EGFR-sensitive and EGFR-resistant preclinical models of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS. Utilizing a standard 3+3 design, a phase I study was designed to determine safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of the regorafenib plus cetuximab combination among patients with advanced cancer including CRC. Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on the exceptional responder.
RESULTS. Among the 27 patients enrolled the median age was 54 years. None of 19 patients treated at dose level 1 (cetuximab i.v. 200 mg/m2 followed by 150 mg/m2 weekly + regorafenib 80 mg daily) experienced a DLT, and 2 of 5 patients treated at dose level 2 (cetuximab i.v. 200 mg/m2 followed by 150 mg/m2 weekly + regorafenib 120 mg daily) experienced a DLT (grade 3 thrombocytopenia [n = 1] and grade 3 intra-abdominal bleed [n = 1]). Most common adverse events were grade 1 or 2 rash (20 patients). Of 24 evaluable patients, 11 (46%) patients had clinical benefit (stable disease > 6 cycles or partial response [PR]) (CRC n = 8, one patient each with head and neck cancer, carcinoma of unknown primary, and glioblastoma). A CRC patient, who progressed on anti-EGFR and regorafenib, achieved a PR (46% decrease per RECIST v1.1) lasting 15 months. Genomic profiling of an exceptional responder with response for over 27 cycles revealed hypermutated genotype with microsatellite instability (MSI).
CONCLUSION. Regorafenib 80 mg daily plus cetuximab 200 mg/m2 loading dose, followed by 150 mg/m2 every week is the MTD/recommended phase II dose. The combination demonstrated early signals of activity in wild-type CRC, including 1 exceptional responder with MSI high.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02095054
FUNDING. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is supported by the NIH Cancer Center Support Grant CA016672. This work was supported in part by the Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas grant RP110584 and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences grant UL1 TR000371 (Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences).
Vivek Subbiah, Muhammad Rizwan Khawaja, David S. Hong, Behrang Amini, Jiang Yungfang, Hui Liu, Adrienne Johnson, Alexa B. Schrock, Siraj M. Ali, James X. Sun, David Fabrizio, Sarina Piha-Paul, Siqing Fu, Apostolia M. Tsimberidou, Aung Naing, Filip Janku, Daniel D. Karp, Michael Overman, Cathy Eng, Scott Kopetz, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Gerald S. Falchook