Nipah virus (NiV), a bat-borne paramyxovirus, results in neurological and respiratory diseases with high mortality in humans and animals. Developing vaccines is crucial for fighting these diseases. Previously, only a few studies focused on the fusion (F) protein alone as the immunogen. Numerous NiV strains have been identified, including 2 representative strains from Malaysia (NiV-M) and Bangladesh (NiV-B), which differ significantly from each other. In this study, an F protein sequence with the potential to prevent different NiV strain infections was designed by bioinformatics analysis after an in-depth study of NiV sequences in GenBank. Then, a chimpanzee adenoviral vector vaccine and a DNA vaccine were developed. High levels of immune responses were detected after AdC68-F, pVAX1-F, and a prime-boost strategy (pVAX1-F/AdC68-F) in mice. After high titers of humoral responses were induced, the hamsters were challenged by the lethal NiV-M and NiV-B strains separately. The vaccinated hamsters did not show any clinical signs and survived 21 days after infection with either strain of NiV, and no virus was detected in different tissues. These results indicate that the vaccines provided complete protection against representative strains of NiV infection and have the potential to be developed as a broad-spectrum vaccine for human use.
Mingqing Lu, Yanfeng Yao, Hang Liu, Xuekai Zhang, Xuejie Li, Yuanhua Liu, Yun Peng, Tong Chen, Yun Sun, Ge Gao, Miaoyu Chen, Jiaxuan Zhao, XiaoYu Zhang, Chunhong Yin, Weiwei Guo, Peipei Yang, Xue Hu, Juhong Rao, Entao Li, Gary Wong, Zhiming Yuan, Sandra Chiu, Chao Shan, Jiaming Lan