Inappropriate immune activity is key in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases and is typically driven by excess inflammation and/or autoimmunity. IL-1 is often the effector due to its powerful role in both innate and adaptive immunity, and thus is tightly controlled at multiple levels. IL-1R2 antagonises IL-1, but effects of losing this regulation is unknown. We find IL-1R2 resolves inflammation by rapidly scavenging free IL-1. Specific IL-1R2 loss in germinal centre (GC) T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells increases the GC response after a first, but not booster, immunisation, with more T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, GC B cells and antigen-specific antibodies, which is reversed upon IL-1 blockade. However, IL-1 signalling is not obligate for GC reactions, as wildtype and Il1r1–/– mice show equivalent phenotypes, suggesting GC IL-1 is normally restrained by IL-1R2. Fascinatingly, germline Il1r2–/– mice do not show this phenotype, but conditional Il1r2 deletion in adulthood recapitulates it, implying compensation during development counteracts IL-1R2 loss. Finally, patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease have lower serum IL-1R2. Together, we show that IL-1R2 controls important aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, and that IL-1R2 level may contribute to human disease propensity and/or progression.
Katerina Pyrillou, Melanie Humphry, Lauren A. Kitt, Amanda Rodgers, Meritxell Nus, Martin R. Bennett, Kenneth G.C. Smith, Paul A. Lyons, Ziad Mallat, Murray C.H. Clarke