In youths with obesity, the gut hormone potentiation of insulin secretion — the incretin effect — is blunted. We explored the longitudinal impact of the incretin effect during pubertal transition on β cell function and insulin sensitivity. Youths with obesity and 2-hour glucose level ≥ 120 mg/dL underwent a 3-hour oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) and an isoglycemic i.v. glucose infusion to quantify the incretin effect. After 2 years, 30 of 39 participants had a repeated OGTT and were stratified into 3 tertiles according to the baseline incretin effect. The high–incretin effect group demonstrated a longitudinal increase in β cell function (disposition index, minimal model [DIMM]), with greater insulin sensitivity at follow-up and stable insulin secretion (φtotal). A lower incretin effect at baseline was associated with higher 1-hour and 2-hour glucose level at follow-up. The high–incretin effect group displayed a greater increase of GLP-17–36 than the moderate- and low-incretin group at baseline, while such a difference did not persist after 2 years. Glucagon suppression was reduced at follow-up in those with low-baseline incretin in respect to the high-incretin group. The incretin effect during pubertal transition affected the longitudinal trajectory of β cell function and weight in youths with obesity.
Alfonso Galderisi, Domenico Tricò, Jessica Lat, Stephanie Samuels, Ram Weiss, Michelle Van Name, Bridget Pierpont, Nicola Santoro, Sonia Caprio