X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by high serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels, resulting in impaired 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) production. Adults with XLH develop a painful mineralization of the tendon-bone attachment site (enthesis), called enthesopathy. Treatment of mice with XLH (Hyp) with 1,25D or an anti–FGF23 Ab, both of which increase 1,25D signaling, prevents enthesopathy. Therefore, we undertook studies to determine a role for impaired 1,25D action in enthesopathy development. Entheses from mice lacking vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1) (C–/–) had a similar enthesopathy to Hyp mice, whereas deletion of Fgf23 in Hyp mice prevented enthesopathy, and deletion of both Cyp27b1 and Fgf23 in mice resulted in enthesopathy, demonstrating that the impaired 1,25D action due to high FGF23 levels underlies XLH enthesopathy development. Like Hyp mice, enthesopathy in C–/– mice was observed by P14 and was prevented, but not reversed, with 1,25D therapy. Deletion of the vitamin D receptor in scleraxis-expressing cells resulted in enthesopathy, indicating that 1,25D acted directly on enthesis cells to regulate enthesopathy development. These results show that 1,25D signaling was necessary for normal postnatal enthesis maturation and played a role in XLH enthesopathy development. Optimizing 1,25D replacement in pediatric patients with XLH is necessary to prevent enthesopathy.
Rakshya Rana, Jiana T. Baker, Melissa Sorsby, Supriya Jagga, Shreya Venkat, Shaza Almardini, Eva S. Liu