In rodent models of type 2 diabetes (T2D), central administration of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) normalizes elevated blood glucose levels in a manner that is sustained for weeks or months. Increased activity of NPY/AgRP neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia in these animals, and the ARC is a key brain area for the antidiabetic action of FGF1. We therefore sought to determine whether FGF1 inhibits NPY/AgRP neurons, and if so whether this inhibitory effect is sufficiently durable to offer a feasible explanation for sustained diabetes remission induced by central administration of FGF1. Here we show that FGF1 inhibits ARC NPY/AgRP neuron activity, both after icv injection in vivo and when applied ex vivo in a slice preparation, and that the underlying mechanism involves increased input from presynaptic GABAergic neurons. Following central administration, the inhibitory effect of FGF1 on NPY/AgRP neurons is also highly durable, lasting for at least two weeks. To our knowledge, no precedent for such a prolonged inhibitory effect exists. Future studies are warranted to determine whether NPY/AgRP neuron inhibition contributes to the sustained antidiabetic action elicited by icv FGF1 injection in rodent models of T2D.
Eunsang Hwang, Jarrad M. Scarlett, Arian F. Baquero, Camdin Bennett, Yanbin Dong, Dominic Chau, Jenny M. Brown, Aaron J. Mercer, Thomas H. Meek, Kevin L. Grove, Bao Anh N. Phan, Gregory J. Morton, Kevin W. Williams, Michael W. Schwartz