Although thymidylate synthase (TYMS) inhibitors have served as components of chemotherapy regimens, the currently available inhibitors induce TYMS overexpression or alter folate transport/metabolism feedback pathways that tumor cells exploit for drug resistance, limiting overall benefit. Here we report a small molecule TYMS inhibitor that i) exhibited enhanced antitumor activity as compared with current fluoropyrimidines and antifolates without inducing TYMS overexpression, ii) is structurally distinct from classical antifolates, iii) extended survival in both pancreatic xenograft tumor models and an hTS/Ink4a/Arf null genetically engineered mouse tumor model, and iv) is well tolerated with equal efficacy using either intraperitoneal or oral administration. Mechanistically, we verify the compound is a multifunctional nonclassical antifolate, and using a series of analogs, we identify structural features allowing direct TYMS inhibition while maintaining the ability to inhibit dihydrofolate reductase. Collectively, this work identifies nonclassical antifolate inhibitors that optimize inhibition of thymidylate biosynthesis with a favorable safety profile, highlighting the potential for enhanced cancer therapy.
Maria V. Guijarro, Patrick C. Kellish, Peter E. Dib, Nicholas G. Paciaroni, Akbar Nawab, Jacob Andring, Lidia Kulemina, Nicholas V. Borrero, Carlos Modenutti, Michael Feely, Elham Nasri, Robert P. Seifert, Xiaoping Luo, Richard L. Bennett, Daniil Shabashvili, Jonathan D. Licht, Robert McKenna, Adrian Roitberg, Robert W. Huigens III, Frederic J. Kaye, Maria Zajac-Kaye