Understanding the immune response to dengue virus (DENV) is essential for developing a dengue vaccine that is protective against all 4 DENV serotypes. We evaluated the immune response after vaccination (live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine TV005 or trivalent admixture) and after challenge with DEN2Δ30 (Tonga/74) to better understand the importance of homotypic immunity in vaccine protection. Significant increases in IP-10 expression were observed following receipt of either the trivalent or tetravalent vaccine. After challenge, a large increase in IP-10 expression was observed in the placebo and trivalent admixture groups but not in the tetravalent vaccine group. MCP-1, IL-1RA, and MIP-1β exhibited a similar pattern as IP-10. These results demonstrate protective effects of trivalent and tetravalent vaccines against DENV and suggest that the tetravalent vaccine has a better protective effect compared with the trivalent admixture. We also explored the postvaccination and postchallenge immune response differences between Black and White participants. White participants responded to vaccine differently than Black participants; Black participants receiving trivalent and tetravalent vaccines responded strongly and White participants responded only transiently in trivalent group. In response to challenge, White participants elicited a stronger response than Black participants. These results may explain why White participants may have a more vigorous DENV immune response than Black participants, as reported in literature.
Ruixue Hou, Lewis E. Tomalin, Jessica Pintado Silva, Seunghee Kim-Schulze, Stephen S. Whitehead, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Anna P. Durbin, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas