HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) predicts risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the factors regulating HDL are incompletely understood. Emerging data link CVD risk to decreased HDL-C in 8% of the world population and 40% of East Asians who carry an SNP of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671, responsible for alcohol flushing syndrome; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We found significantly decreased HDL-C with increased hepatosteatosis in ALDH2-KO (AKO), ALDH2/LDLR–double KO (ALKO), and ALDH2 rs671–knock-in (KI) mice after consumption of a Western diet. Metabolomics identified ADP-ribose as the most significantly increased metabolites in the ALKO mouse liver. Moreover, ALDH2 interacted with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and attenuated PARP1 nuclear translocation to downregulate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of liver X receptor α (LXRα), leading to an upregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and HDL biogenesis. Conversely, AKO or ALKO mice exhibited lower HDL-C with ABCA1 downregulation due to increased nuclear PARP1 and upregulation of LXRα poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Consistently, PARP1 inhibition rescued ALDH2 deficiency–induced fatty liver and elevated HDL-C in AKO mice. Interestingly, KI mouse or human liver tissues showed ABCA1 downregulation with increased nuclear PARP1 and LXRα poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Our study uncovered a key role of ALDH2 in HDL biogenesis through the LXRα/PARP1/ABCA1 axis, highlighting a potential therapeutic strategy in CVD.
Luxiao Li, Shanshan Zhong, Rui Li, Ningning Liang, Lili Zhang, Shen Xia, Xiaodong Xu, Xin Chen, Shiting Chen, Yongzhen Tao, Huiyong Yin