Identification of molecular subtypes that reflect different prognoses and treatment responses, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), is essential for treatment decisions. We performed targeted sequencing in 201 patients with ESCC to discover genetic subtypes and validate our findings via multiple data sets. We identified 3 driver genes (FCGBP, GRIN2B, and FRY), and recurrent truncating mutations in FRY impaired its tumor-suppressive function and promoted tumor proliferation. A 3-gene mutation signature (FAT1, FAT3, and FRY) recognized a molecular subtype named “FAT/FRY” with frequent Hippo pathway–related mutations. In multiple ESCC cohorts, the patients with the FAT/FRY subtype had poorer prognosis than did patients in the WT group. Transcriptome analysis indicated that the FAT/FRY subtype was characterized by inactivation of the Hippo pathway, hypoxia, chemoresistance, higher infiltration of CD8+ T cells and activated DCs, and a transcriptome similar to that of cancer responders. Furthermore, the 3-gene signature predicted better survival for patients treated with ICIs, partially explained by its positive correlation with the tumor mutation burden and neoantigen burden. The 3-gene signature is a biomarker to recognize the FAT/FRY molecular subtype, evaluate prognosis, and select potential beneficiaries of ICIs in ESCC.
Zihang Mai, Jianye Yuan, Hong Yang, Shuogui Fang, Xiuying Xie, Xinye Wang, Jiaxin Xie, Jing Wen, Jianhua Fu
This file is in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. If you have not installed and configured the Adobe Acrobat Reader on your system.
PDFs are designed to be printed out and read, but if you prefer to read them online, you may find it easier if you increase the view size to 125%.
Many versions of the free Acrobat Reader do not allow Save. You must instead save the PDF from the JCI Online page you downloaded it from. PC users: Right-click on the Download link and choose the option that says something like "Save Link As...". Mac users should hold the mouse button down on the link to get these same options.