Nephrolithiasis is a common and recurrent disease affecting 9% of the US population. Hyperoxaluria is major risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stones, which constitute two-thirds of all kidney stones. SLC26A3 (DRA, downregulated in adenoma) is an anion exchanger of chloride, bicarbonate, and oxalate thought to facilitate intestinal oxalate absorption, as evidenced by approximately 70% reduced urine oxalate excretion in knockout mice. We previously identified a small-molecule SLC26A3 inhibitor (DRAinh-A270) that selectively inhibited SLC26A3-mediated chloride/bicarbonate exchange (IC50 ~ 35 nM) and, as found here, oxalate/chloride exchange (IC50 ~ 60 nM). In colonic closed loops in mice, luminal DRAinh-A270 inhibited oxalate absorption by 70%. Following oral sodium oxalate loading in mice, DRAinh-A270 largely prevented the 2.5-fold increase in urine oxalate/creatinine ratio. In a mouse model of oxalate nephropathy produced by a high-oxalate low-calcium diet, vehicle-treated mice developed marked hyperoxaluria with elevated serum creatinine, renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition, and renal injury, which were largely prevented by DRAinh-A270 (10 mg/kg twice daily). DRAinh-A270 administered over 7 days to healthy mice did not show significant toxicity. Our findings support a major role of SLC26A3 in intestinal oxalate absorption and suggest the therapeutic utility of SLC26A3 inhibition for treatment of hyperoxaluria and prevention of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.
Onur Cil, Tifany Chu, Sujin Lee, Peter M. Haggie, Alan S. Verkman