2′3′-cGAMP is known as a nonclassical second messenger and small immune modulator that possesses potent antitumor and antiviral activities via inducing the stimulator of IFN genes–mediated (STING-mediated) signaling pathway. However, its function in regulating type 2 immune responses remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine a role of STING activation by 2′3′-cGAMP in type 2 inflammatory reactions in multiple mouse models of eosinophilic asthma. We discovered that 2′3′-cGAMP administration strongly attenuated type 2 lung immunopathology and airway hyperreactivity induced by IL-33 and a fungal allergen, Aspergillus flavus. Mechanistically, upon the respiratory delivery, 2′3′-cGAMP was mainly internalized by alveolar macrophages, in which it activated the STING/IFN regulatory factor 3/type I IFN signaling axis to induce the production of inhibitory factors containing IFN-α, which blocked the IL-33–mediated activation of group 2 innate lymphoid (ILC2) cells in vivo. We further demonstrated that 2′3′-cGAMP directly suppressed the proliferation and function of both human and mouse ILC2 cells in vitro. Taken together, our findings suggest that STING activation by 2′3′-cGAMP in alveolar macrophages and ILC2 cells can negatively regulate type 2 immune responses, implying that the respiratory delivery of 2′3′-cGAMP might be further developed as an alternative strategy for treating type 2 immunopathologic diseases such as eosinophilic asthma.
Li She, Gema D. Barrera, Liping Yan, Hamad H. Alanazi, Edward G. Brooks, Peter H. Dube, Yilun Sun, Hong Zan, Daniel P. Chupp, Nu Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yong Liu, Xiao-Dong Li