Somatostatin (SS) inhibits glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in a paracrine manner. We hypothesized that blocking somatostatin subtype receptor 2 (SSTR2) and 5 (SSTR5) would improve glycemia by enhancing GLP-1 secretion. In the perfused mouse small intestine, the selective SSTR5 antagonist (SSTR5a) stimulated glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion to a larger degree than the SSTR2 antagonist (SSTR2a). In parallel, mice lacking the SSTR5R showed increased glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion. Both antagonists improved glycemia in vivo in a GLP-1 receptor–dependent (GLP-1R–dependent) manner, as the glycemic improvements were absent in mice with impaired GLP-1R signaling and in mice treated with a GLP-1R–specific antagonist. SSTR5a had no direct effect on insulin secretion in the perfused pancreas, whereas SSTR2a increased insulin secretion in a GLP-1R–independent manner. Adding a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) in vivo resulted in additive effects on glycemia. However, when glucose was administered intraperitoneally, the antagonist was incapable of lowering blood glucose. Oral administration of SSTR5a, but not SSTR2a, lowered blood glucose in diet-induced obese mice. In summary, we demonstrate that selective SSTR antagonists can improve glucose control primarily through the intestinal GLP-1 system in mice.
Sara L. Jepsen, Nicolai J. Wewer Albrechtsen, Johanne A. Windeløv, Katrine D. Galsgaard, Jenna E. Hunt, Thomas B. Farb, Hannelouise Kissow, Jens Pedersen, Carolyn F. Deacon, Rainer E. Martin, Jens J. Holst