Hair cell loss is the leading cause of hearing and balance disorders in humans. It can be caused by many factors, including noise, aging, and therapeutic agents. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic potential of quinoxaline against drug-induced ototoxicity. Here, we screened a library of 68 quinoxaline derivatives for protection against aminoglycoside-induced damage of hair cells from the zebrafish lateral line. We identified quinoxaline-5-carboxylic acid (Qx28) as the best quinoxaline derivative that provides robust protection against both aminoglycosides and cisplatin in zebrafish and mouse cochlear explants. FM1-43 and aminoglycoside uptake, as well as antibiotic efficacy studies, revealed that Qx28 is neither blocking the mechanotransduction channels nor interfering with aminoglycoside antibacterial activity, suggesting that it may be protecting the hair cells by directly counteracting the ototoxin’s mechanism of action. Only when animals were incubated with higher doses of Qx28 did we observe a partial blockage of the mechanotransduction channels. Finally, we assessed the regulation of the NF-κB pathway in vitro in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in vivo in zebrafish larvae. Those studies showed that Qx28 protects hair cells by blocking NF-κB canonical pathway activation. Thus, Qx28 is a promising and versatile otoprotectant that can act across different species and toxins.


Marisa Zallocchi, Santanu Hati, Zhenhang Xu, William Hausman, Huizhan Liu, David Z. He, Jian Zuo


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