S-nitroso-l-cysteine (L-CSNO) behaves as a ligand. Its soluble guanylate cyclase–independent (sGC-independent) effects are stereoselective — that is, not recapitulated by S-nitroso-d-cysteine (D-CSNO) — and are inhibited by chemical congeners. However, candidate L-CSNO receptors have not been identified. Here, we have used 2 complementary affinity chromatography assays — followed by unbiased proteomic analysis — to identify voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv) proteins as binding partners for L-CSNO. Stereoselective L-CSNO–Kv interaction was confirmed structurally and functionally using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy; hydrogen deuterium exchange; and, in Kv1.1/Kv1.2/Kvβ2-overexpressing cells, patch clamp assays. Remarkably, these sGC-independent L-CSNO effects did not involve S-nitrosylation of Kv proteins. In isolated rat and mouse respiratory control (petrosyl) ganglia, L-CSNO stereoselectively inhibited Kv channel function. Genetic ablation of Kv1.1 prevented this effect. In intact animals, L-CSNO injection at the level of the carotid body dramatically and stereoselectively increased minute ventilation while having no effect on blood pressure; this effect was inhibited by the L-CSNO congener S-methyl-l-cysteine. Kv proteins are physiologically relevant targets of endogenous L-CSNO. This may be a signaling pathway of broad relevance.
Benjamin Gaston, Laura Smith, Jürgen Bosch, James Seckler, Diana Kunze, Janna Kiselar, Nadzeya Marozkina, Craig A. Hodges, Patrick Wintrobe, Kellen McGee, Tatiana S. Morozkina, Spencer T. Burton, Tristan Lewis, Timothy Strassmaier, Paulina Getsy, James N. Bates, Stephen J. Lewis