Platelet inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) has been shown to control systemic inflammation. Herein, we examined if platelets and IP6K1 regulate pancreatic tissue injury via formation of NETs in experimental models of acute pancreatitis (AP) in mice. By use of electron microscopy abundant NET formation was observed in the inflamed pancreas. These NETs contained numerous microparticles (MP) expressing CD41 or Mac-1. Platelet depletion reduced deposition of NET-MP complexes in the inflamed pancreas. Circulating platelet-neutrophil aggregates (PNA) were increased and inhibition of P-selectin not only disrupted PNA formation but also reduced NETs formation in the inflamed pancreas. NETs depleted of MPs had lower capacity to provoke amylase secretion and STAT-3 phosphorylation in acinar cells. Taurocholate-induced NETs formation, inflammation and tissue damage in the pancreas were decreased in IP6K1-deficient mice. Thrombin stimulation of mixtures of wild-type platelets and neutrophils resulted in NETs formation but not when IP6K1-deficient platelets were incubated with wild-type neutrophils. Polyphosphate rescue restored thrombin-induced NET formation in mixtures of IP6K1-deficient platelets and wild-type neutrophils. Platelet IP6K1 regulates NET-MP complex formation in the pancreas of mice during induction of AP. Targeting platelet IP6K1 might useful to decrease NET-dependent pancreatic tissue inflammation and tissue injury in patients with AP.
Raed Madhi, Milladur Rahman, Dler Taha, Johan Linders, Mohammed Merza, Yongzhi Wang, Matthias Mörgelin, Henrik Thorlacius