Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites. Hypothesizing that innate immune dysfunction contributes to susceptibility to infection, we assessed ascitic fluid macrophage phenotype and function. The expression of complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) and CCR2 defined two phenotypically and functionally distinct peritoneal macrophage subpopulations. The proportion of CRIghi macrophages differed between patients and in the same patient over time, and a high proportion of CRIghi macrophages was associated with reduced disease severity (model for end-stage liver disease) score. As compared with CRIglo macrophages, CRIghi macrophages were highly phagocytic and displayed enhanced antimicrobial effector activity. Transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing and comparison with human macrophage and murine peritoneal macrophage expression signatures highlighted similarities among CRIghi cells, human macrophages, and mouse F4/80hi resident peritoneal macrophages and among CRIglo macrophages, human monocytes, and mouse F4/80lo monocyte-derived peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that CRIghi and CRIglo macrophages may represent a tissue-resident population and a monocyte-derived population, respectively. In conclusion, ascites fluid macrophage subset distribution and phagocytic capacity is highly variable among patients with chronic liver disease. Regulating the numbers and/or functions of these macrophage populations could provide therapeutic opportunities in cirrhotic patients.
Katharine M. Irvine, Xuan Banh, Victoria L. Gadd, Kyle K. Wojcik, Juliana K. Ariffin, Sara Jose, Samuel Lukowski, Gregory J. Baillie, Matthew J. Sweet, Elizabeth E. Powell
Secreted by activated cells or passively released by damaged cells, extracellular HMGB1 is a prototypical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) inflammatory mediator. During the course of developing extracorporeal approaches to treating injury and infection, we inadvertently discovered that haptoglobin, the acute phase protein that binds extracellular hemoglobin and targets cellular uptake through CD163, also binds HMGB1. Haptoglobin-HMGB1 complexes elicit the production of antiinflammatory enzymes (heme oxygenase-1) and cytokines (e.g., IL-10) in WT but not in CD163-deficient macrophages. Genetic disruption of haptoglobin or CD163 expression significantly enhances mortality rates in standardized models of intra-abdominal sepsis in mice. Administration of haptoglobin to WT and to haptoglobin gene-deficient animals confers significant protection. These findings reveal a mechanism for haptoglobin modulation of the inflammatory action of HMGB1, with significant implications for developing experimental strategies targeting HMGB1-dependent inflammatory diseases.
Huan Yang, Haichao Wang, Yaakov A. Levine, Manoj K. Gunasekaran, Yongjun Wang, Meghan Addorisio, Shu Zhu, Wei Li, Jianhua Li, Dominique P.V. de Kleijn, Peder S. Olofsson, H. Shaw Warren, Mingzhu He, Yousef Al-Abed, Jesse Roth, Daniel J. Antoine, Sangeeta S. Chavan, Ulf Andersson, Kevin J. Tracey
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