It is proposed that the impaired sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycemia induced by recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RH) is an adaptive phenomenon induced by specific changes in microRNA expression in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). To test this hypothesis, genome-wide microRNAomic profiling of the VMH by RNA-sequencing was performed in control rats and rats treated for RH. Differential expression analysis identified microRNA-7a-5p and microRNA-665 as potential mediators of this phenomenon. To further test this hypothesis, experiments were conducted consisting of targeted lentiviral-mediated overexpression of microRNA-7a-5p and downregulation of microRNA-665 in the VMH. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp experiments demonstrated that targeted overexpression of microRNA-7a-5p (but not downregulation of microRNA-665) in the VMH of RH rats restored the epinephrine response to hypoglycemia. This restored response to hypoglycemia was associated with a restoration of GABAA receptor gene expression. Finally, a direct interaction of microRNA-7a-5p with the 3′-UTR of GABAA receptor α1-subunit (Gabra1) gene was demonstrated in a luciferase assay. These findings indicate that (a) the impaired sympathoadrenal response RH induces is associated with changes in VMH microRNA expression and (b) microRNA-7a-5p, possibly via direct downregulation of GABA receptor gene expression, may serve as a mediator of the altered sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycemia.
Rahul Agrawal, Griffin Durupt, Dinesh Verma, Michael Montgomery, Adriana Vieira-de Abreu, Casey Taylor, Sankar Swaminathan, Simon J. Fisher
The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exenatide improves glycemic control by several and not completely understood mechanisms. Herein, we examined the effects of chronic intravenous exenatide infusion on insulin sensitivity, β- and α-cell function and relative volumes, islet cell apoptosis and replication in nondiabetic non-human primates (baboons). At baseline, baboons received a 2-step hyperglycemic clamp followed by an L-arginine bolus (HC/A). After HC/A, baboons underwent a partial pancreatectomy (tail removal) and received a continuous exenatide (n = 12) or saline (n = 12) infusion for 13 weeks. At the end of treatment, HC/A was repeated and the remnant pancreas (head-body) harvested. Insulin sensitivity increased dramatically after exenatide treatment and was accompanied by a decrease in insulin and C-peptide secretion, while the insulin secretion/insulin resistance (disposition) index increased by approximately 2-fold. β-, α-, and δ-cell relative volumes in exenatide-treated baboons were significantly increased compared to saline-treated controls, primarily as the result of increased islet cell replication. Features of cellular stress and secretory dysfunction were present in islets of saline-treated baboons and absent in islets of exenatide-treated baboons. In conclusion, chronic administration of exenatide exerts proliferative and cytoprotective effects on β-, α-, and δ-cells and produces a robust increase in insulin sensitivity in non-human primates.
Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Francesca Casiraghi, Alberto M. Davalli, Giovanna Finzi, Stefano La Rosa, Paul B. Higgins, Gregory A. Abrahamian, Alessandro Marando, Fausto Sessa, Carla Perego, Rodolfo Guardado- Mendoza, Subhash Kamath, Andrea Ricotti, Paolo Fiorina, Giuseppe Daniele, Ana M. Paez, Francesco Andreozzi, Raul A. Bastarrachea, Anthony G. Comuzzie, Amalia Gastaldelli, Alberto O. Chavez, Eliana S. Di Cairano, Patrice A. Frost, Livio Luzi, Edward J. Dick, Jr., Glenn A. Halff, Ralph A. DeFronzo, Franco Folli
Insulin resistance associates with increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia; however, the underpinning mechanisms for this increased risk remain to be fully defined. As insulin resistance impairs mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and increases ROS in skeletal muscle, we considered whether similar events occur in the brain, which — like muscle — is rich in insulin receptors and mitochondria. We show that high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) brain insulin resistance in mice decreased mitochondrial ATP production rate and oxidative enzyme activities in brain regions rich in insulin receptors. HFD increased ROS emission and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities, with the concurrent accumulation of oxidatively damaged mitochondrial proteins and increased mitochondrial fission. Improvement of insulin sensitivity by both aerobic exercise and metformin ameliorated HFD-induced abnormalities. Moreover, insulin-induced enhancement of ATP production in primary cortical neurons and astrocytes was counteracted by the insulin receptor antagonist S961, demonstrating a direct effect of insulin resistance on brain mitochondria. Further, intranasal S961 administration prevented exercise-induced improvements in ATP production and ROS emission during HFD, supporting that exercise enhances brain mitochondrial function by improving insulin action. These results support that insulin sensitizing by exercise and metformin restores brain mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant states.
Gregory N. Ruegsegger, Patrick M. Vanderboom, Surendra Dasari, Katherine A. Klaus, Parijat Kabiraj, Christina B. McCarthy, Claudia F. Lucchinetti, K. Sreekumaran Nair
Sustained therapeutic responses from traditional and next-generation antiandrogen therapies remain elusive in clinical practice due to inherent and/or acquired resistance resulting in persistent androgen receptor (AR) activity. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) have the ability to block target gene expression and associated protein products and provide an alternate treatment strategy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We demonstrate the efficacy and therapeutic potential of this approach with a Generation-2.5 ASO targeting the mouse AR in genetically engineered models of prostate cancer. Furthermore, reciprocal feedback between AR and PI3K/AKT signaling was circumvented using a combination approach of AR-ASO therapy with the potent pan-AKT inhibitor, AZD5363. This treatment strategy effectively improved treatment responses and prolonged survival in a clinically relevant mouse model of advanced CRPC. Thus, our data provide preclinical evidence to support a combination strategy of next-generation ASOs targeting AR in combination with AKT inhibition as a potentially beneficial treatment approach for CRPC.
Marco A. De Velasco, Yurie Kura, Kazuko Sakai, Yuji Hatanaka, Barry R. Davies, Hayley Campbell, Stephanie Klein, Youngsoo Kim, A. Robert MacLeod, Koichi Sugimoto, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa, Kazuto Nishio, Hirotsugu Uemura
Dysregulated actions of bone-derived phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) result in several inherited diseases, such as X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), and contribute substantially to the mortality in kidney failure. Mechanisms governing FGF23 production are poorly defined. We herein found that ablation of the Gq/11α–like, extralarge Gα subunit (XLαs), a product of GNAS, exhibits FGF23 deficiency and hyperphosphatemia in early postnatal mice (XLKO). FGF23 elevation in response to parathyroid hormone, a stimulator of FGF23 production via cAMP, was intact in XLKO mice, while skeletal levels of protein kinase C isoforms α and δ (PKCα and PKCδ) were diminished. XLαs ablation in osteocyte-like Ocy454 cells suppressed the levels of FGF23 mRNA, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), and PKCα/PKCδ proteins. PKC activation in vivo via injecting phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or by constitutively active Gqα-Q209L in osteocytes and osteoblasts promoted FGF23 production. Molecular studies showed that the PKC activation–induced FGF23 elevation was dependent on MAPK signaling. The baseline PKC activity was elevated in bones of Hyp mice, a model of XLH. XLαs ablation significantly, but modestly, reduced serum FGF23 and elevated serum phosphate in Hyp mice. These findings reveal a potentially hitherto-unknown mechanism of FGF23 synthesis involving a G protein–coupled IP3/PKC pathway, which may be targeted to fine-tune FGF23 levels.
Qing He, Lauren T. Shumate, Julia Matthias, Cumhur Aydin, Marc N. Wein, Jordan M. Spatz, Regina Goetz, Moosa Mohammadi, Antonius Plagge, Paola Divieti Pajevic, Murat Bastepe
Recent genetic examinations and multisteroid profiles have provided the basis for subclassification of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). The objective of the current study was to produce a comprehensive, high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) map of APAs in relation to morphometry, immunohistochemical profiles, mutational status, and clinical outcome. The study cohort comprised 136 patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–Fourier transform–ion cyclotron resonance MSI was conducted, and metabolite profiles were analyzed with genotype/phenotype information, including digital image analysis from morphometry and IHC of steroidogenic enzymes. Distinct molecular signatures between KCNJ5- and CACNA1D-mutated APAs with significant differences of 137 metabolites, including metabolites of purine metabolism and steroidogenesis, were observed. Intratumor concentration of 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol were inversely correlated with the staining intensity of CYP11B1. Lower staining intensity of CYP11B1 and higher levels of 18-oxocortisol were associated with a higher probability of complete clinical success after surgery. The present study demonstrates distinct metabolomic profiles of APAs in relation to tumor genotype. In addition, we reveal an inverse correlation between cortisol derivatives and CYP11B1 and the impact of 18-oxocortisol and CYP11B1 on clinical outcome, which provides unprecedented insights into the pathophysiology, clinical features, and steroidogenesis of APAs.
Masanori Murakami, Yara Rhayem, Thomas Kunzke, Na Sun, Annette Feuchtinger, Philippe Ludwig, Tim Matthias Strom, Celso Gomez-Sanchez, Thomas Knösel, Thomas Kirchner, Tracy Ann Williams, Martin Reincke, Axel Karl Walch, Felix Beuschlein
Research shows that rats and humans on a high-fat diet (HFD) are less sensitive to satiety signals known to act via vagal afferent pathways. We hypothesize that HFD causes an upregulation of 2-pore domain potassium channels, resulting in hyperpolarization of nodose ganglia (NG) and decreased vagal response to satiety signals, which contribute to hyperphagia. We show that a 2-week HFD caused an upregulation of 2-pore domain TWIK-related spinal cord K+ (TRESK) and TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ 1 (TASK1) channels by 330% ± 50% and 60% ± 20%, respectively, in NG. Patch-clamp studies of isolated NG neurons demonstrated a decrease in excitability. In vivo single-unit NG recordings showed that a 2-week HFD led to a 55% reduction in firing frequency in response to CCK-8 or leptin stimulation. NG electroporation with TRESK siRNA restored NG responsiveness to CCK-8 and leptin. Rats fed a 2-week HFD consumed ~40% more calories compared with controls. Silencing NG TRESK but not TASK1 channel expression in HFD-fed rats restored normal calorie consumption. In conclusion, HFD caused upregulation of TRESK channels, resulting in NG hyperpolarization and decreased vagal responsiveness to satiety signals. This finding provides a pharmacological target to prevent or treat HFD-induced hyperphagia.
Gintautas Grabauskas, Xiaoyin Wu, ShiYi Zhou, JiYao Li, Jun Gao, Chung Owyang
Many women with hyperandrogenemia suffer from irregular menses and infertility. However, it is unknown whether androgens directly affect reproduction. Since animal models of hyperandrogenemia-induced infertility are associated with obesity, which may impact reproductive function, we have created a lean mouse model of elevated androgen using implantation of low dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT) pellets to separate the effects of elevated androgen from obesity. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls reproduction. While we have demonstrated that androgen impairs ovarian function, androgen could also disrupt neuroendocrine function at the level of brain and/or pituitary to cause infertility. To understand how elevated androgens might act on pituitary gonadotropes to influence reproductive function, female mice with disruption of the androgen receptor (Ar) gene specifically in pituitary gonadotropes (PitARKO) were produced. DHT treated control mice with intact pituitary Ar (Con-DHT) exhibit disrupted estrous cyclicity and fertility with reduced pituitary responsiveness to GnRH at the level of both calcium signaling and LH secretion. These effects were ameliorated in DHT treated PitARKO mice. Calcium signaling controls GnRH regulation of LH vesicle exotocysis. Our data implicated upregulation of GEM (a voltage-dependent calcium channel inhibitor) in the pituitary as a potential mechanism for androgen’s pathological effects. These results demonstrate that gonadotrope AR, as an extra-ovarian regulator, plays an important role in reproductive pathophysiology.
Zhiqiang Wang, Mingxiao Feng, Olubusayo Awe, Yaping Ma, Mingjie Shen, Ping Xue, Rexford Ahima, Andrew Wolfe, James Segars, Sheng Wu
Glucagon and insulin are commonly believed to have counteracting effects on blood glucose levels. However, recent studies have demonstrated that glucagon has a physiologic role to activate β-cells and enhance insulin secretion. To date, the actions of glucagon have been studied mostly in fasting or hypoglycemic states, yet it is clear that mixed-nutrient meals elicit secretion of both glucagon and insulin, suggesting that glucagon also contributes to glucose regulation in the postprandial state. We hypothesized that the elevated glycemia seen in the fed state would allow glucagon to stimulate insulin secretion and reduce blood glucose. In fact, exogenous glucagon given under fed conditions did robustly stimulate insulin secretion and lower glycemia. Exogenous glucagon given to fed Gcgr:Glp1rβcell-/- mice failed to stimulate insulin secretion or reduce glycemia, demonstrating the importance of an insulinotropic glucagon effect. The action of endogenous glucagon to reduce glycemia in the fed state was tested with administration of alanine, a potent glucagon secretagogue. Alanine raised blood glucose in fasted WT mice or fed Gcgr:Glp1rβcell-/- mice, conditions where glucagon is unable to stimulate β-cell activity. However, alanine given to fed WT mice produced a decrease in glycemia, along with elevated insulin and glucagon levels. Overall, our data support a model in which glucagon serves as an insulinotropic hormone in the fed state and complements rather than opposes insulin action to maintain euglycemia.
Megan E. Capozzi, Jacob B. Wait, Jepchumba Koech, Andrew N. Gordon, Reilly W. Coch, Berit Svendsen, Brian Finan, David A. D'Alessio, Jonathan E. Campbell
The synthesis of lipid and sterol species through de novo lipogenesis (DNL) is regulated by two functionally overlapping but distinct transcription factors: the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP). ChREBP is considered to be the dominant regulator of DNL in adipose tissue (AT); however, the SREBPs are highly expressed and robustly regulated in adipocytes, suggesting that the model of AT DNL may be incomplete. Here we describe a new mouse model of inducible, adipocyte-specific overexpression of the insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), a negative regulator of SREBP transcriptional activity. Contrary to convention, Insig1 overexpression did block AT lipogenic gene expression. However, this was immediately met with a compensatory mechanism triggered by redox activation of mTORC1 to restore SREBP1 DNL gene expression. Thus, we demonstrate that SREBP1 activity sustains adipocyte lipogenesis, a conclusion that has been elusive due to the constitutive nature of current mouse models.
Clair Crewe, Yi Zhu, Vivian A. Paschoal, Nolwenn Joffin, Alexandra L. Ghaben, Ruth Gordillo, Da Young Oh, Guosheng Liang, Jay D. Horton, Philipp E. Scherer
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