Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2), also known as serum amyloid P component (SAP/APCS), is a constitutive, antiinflammatory, innate immune plasma protein whose circulating level is decreased in chronic human fibrotic diseases. Here we show that recombinant human PTX-2 (rhPTX-2) retards progression of chronic kidney disease in
Naoki Nakagawa, Luke Barron, Ivan G. Gomez, Bryce G. Johnson, Allie M. Roach, Sei Kameoka, Richard M. Jack, Mark L. Lupher Jr., Sina A. Gharib, Jeremy S. Duffield
Hepatic fibrosis arises from inflammation in the liver initiated by resident macrophage activation and massive leukocyte accumulation. Hepatic macrophages hold a central position in maintaining homeostasis in the liver and in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic liver injury linked to fibrogenesis. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has recently emerged as an important proinflammatory transcription factor involved in macrophage activation under acute and chronic inflammation. Here, we revealed that IRF5 is significantly induced in liver macrophages from human subjects developing liver fibrosis from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or hepatitis C virus infection. Furthermore, IRF5 expression positively correlated with clinical markers of liver damage, such as plasma transaminase and bilirubin levels. Interestingly, mice lacking IRF5 in myeloid cells (MKO) were protected from hepatic fibrosis induced by metabolic or toxic stresses. Transcriptional reprogramming of macrophages lacking IRF5 was characterized by immunosuppressive and antiapoptotic properties. Consequently, IRF5 MKO mice respond to hepatocellular stress by promoting hepatocyte survival, leading to complete protection from hepatic fibrogenesis. Our findings reveal a regulatory network, governed by IRF5, that mediates hepatocyte death and liver fibrosis in mice and humans. Therefore, modulating IRF5 function may be an attractive approach to experimental therapeutics in fibroinflammatory liver disease.
Fawaz Alzaid, Floriane Lagadec, Miguel Albuquerque, Raphaëlle Ballaire, Lucie Orliaguet, Isabelle Hainault, Corinne Blugeon, Sophie Lemoine, Agnès Lehuen, David G. Saliba, Irina A. Udalova, Valérie Paradis, Fabienne Foufelle, Nicolas Venteclef
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by airway remodeling, inflammation, alveolar destruction, and fibrosis. We utilized single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to identify epithelial cell types and associated biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Transcriptomic analysis of normal human lung epithelial cells defined gene expression patterns associated with highly differentiated alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, indicated by enrichment of RNAs critical for surfactant homeostasis. In contrast, scRNA-seq of IPF cells identified 3 distinct subsets of epithelial cell types with characteristics of conducting airway basal and goblet cells and an additional atypical transitional cell that contributes to pathological processes in IPF. Individual IPF cells frequently coexpressed alveolar type 1 (AT1), AT2, and conducting airway selective markers, demonstrating “indeterminate” states of differentiation not seen in normal lung development. Pathway analysis predicted aberrant activation of canonical signaling via TGF-β, HIPPO/YAP, P53, WNT, and AKT/PI3K. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy identified the disruption of alveolar structure and loss of the normal proximal-peripheral differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. scRNA-seq analyses identified loss of normal epithelial cell identities and unique contributions of epithelial cells to the pathogenesis of IPF. The present study provides a rich data source to further explore lung health and disease.
Yan Xu, Takako Mizuno, Anusha Sridharan, Yina Du, Minzhe Guo, Jie Tang, Kathryn A. Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Anne-Karina T. Perl, Vincent A. Funari, Jason J. Gokey, Barry R. Stripp, Jeffrey A. Whitsett
Ectopic lymphoid tissues (ELT) can be found in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other organ-specific inflammatory conditions. Whether ELT in the meninges of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease exhibit local germinal center (GC) activity remains unknown. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of CNS autoimmunity, we found activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a GC-defining enzyme, in meningeal ELT (mELT) densely populated by B and T cells. To determine GC activity in mELT, we excised meningeal lymphoid aggregates using laser capture microscopy and evaluated B cell repertoires in mELT and secondary lymphoid organs by next-generation immune repertoire sequencing. We found immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region sequences that were unique to mELT and had accumulated functionally relevant somatic mutations, together indicating localized antigen-driven affinity maturation. Our results suggest that B cells in mELT actively participate in CNS autoimmunity, which may be relevant to mELT in MS and ELT in other chronic inflammatory conditions.
Klaus Lehmann-Horn, Sheng-zhi Wang, Sharon A. Sagan, Scott S. Zamvil, H.-Christian von Büdingen
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common autosomal dominant disorder that presents with short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and cardiac abnormalities. Activating mutations in the
Jae-Sung Yi, Yan Huang, Andrea T. Kwaczala, Ivana Y. Kuo, Barbara E. Ehrlich, Stuart G. Campbell, Frank J. Giordano, Anton M. Bennett
Maladaptive epithelial repair from chronic injury is a common feature in fibrotic diseases, which in turn activates a pathogenic fibroblast response that produces excessive matrix deposition. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRs) can regulate expression of multiple genes and fundamentally alter cellular phenotypes during fibrosis. Although several miRs have been shown to be associated with lung fibrosis, the mechanisms by which miRs modulate epithelial behavior in lung fibrosis are lacking. Here, we identified miR-323a-3p to be downregulated in the epithelium of lungs with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and murine bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Antagomirs for miR-323a-3p augment, and mimics suppress, murine lung fibrosis after bleomycin injury, indicating that this miR may govern profibrotic signals. We demonstrate that miR-323a-3p attenuates TGF-α and TGF-β signaling by directly targeting key adaptors in these important fibrogenic pathways. Moreover, miR-323a-3p lowers caspase-3 expression, thereby limiting programmed cell death from inducers of apoptosis and ER stress. Finally, we find that epithelial expression of miR-323a-3p modulates inhibitory crosstalk with fibroblasts. These studies demonstrate that miR-323a-3p has a central role in lung fibrosis that spans across murine and human disease, and downregulated expression by the lung epithelium releases inhibition of various profibrotic pathways to promote fibroproliferation.
Lingyin Ge, David M. Habiel, Phil M. Hansbro, Richard Y. Kim, Sina A. Gharib, Jeffery D. Edelman, Melanie Königshoff, Tanyalak Parimon, Rena Brauer, Ying Huang, Jenieke Allen, Dianhua Jiang, Adrianne A. Kurkciyan, Takako Mizuno, Barry R. Stripp, Paul W. Noble, Cory M. Hogaboam, Peter Chen
T cells that enter tumors are largely tolerized, but how that process is choreographed and how the ensuing “dysfunctional” tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are maintained are poorly understood and are difficult to assess in spontaneous disease. We exploited an autochthonous model of breast cancer for high-resolution imaging of the early and later stages of tumor residence to understand the relationships between cellular behaviors and cellular phenotypes. “Dysfunctional” differentiation began within the first days of tumor residence with an initial phase in which T cells arrest, largely on tumor-associated macrophages. Within 10 days, cellular motility increased and resembled a random walk, suggesting a relative absence of TCR signaling. We then studied the concurrent and apparently contradictory phenomenon that many of these cells express molecular markers of activation and were visualized undergoing active cell division. We found that whereas proliferation did not require ongoing TCR/ZAP70 signaling, instead this is driven in part by intratumoral IL-15 cytokine. Thus, TILs undergo sequential reprogramming by the tumor microenvironment and are actively retained, even while being antigen insensitive. We conclude that this program effectively fills the niche with ineffective yet cytokine-dependent TILs, and we propose that these might compete with new clones, when they arise.
Bijan Boldajipour, Amanda Nelson, Matthew F. Krummel
Psoriasis patients are at increased risk of heart attack and stroke and have elevated MRP8/14 levels that predict heart attack. The KC-Tie2 psoriasiform mouse model exhibits elevated MRP8/14 and is prothrombotic.
Yunmei Wang, Jackelyn B. Golden, Yi Fritz, Xiufen Zhang, Doina Diaconu, Maya I. Camhi, Huiyun Gao, Sean M. Dawes, Xianying Xing, Santhi K. Ganesh, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Daniel I. Simon, Thomas S. McCormick, Nicole L. Ward
The adaptive immune repertoire plays a critical role in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. However, efforts to characterize B cell and T cell receptor (TCR) profiles in T1D subjects have been largely limited to peripheral blood sampling and restricted to known antigens. To address this, we collected pancreatic draining lymph nodes (pLN), “irrelevant” nonpancreatic draining lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and splenocytes from T1D subjects (
Howard R. Seay, Erik Yusko, Stephanie J. Rothweiler, Lin Zhang, Amanda L. Posgai, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Marissa Vignali, Ryan O. Emerson, John S. Kaddis, Dave Ko, Maki Nakayama, Mia J. Smith, John C. Cambier, Alberto Pugliese, Mark A. Atkinson, Harlan S. Robins, Todd M. Brusko
IFN-ε is a unique type I IFN that is not induced by pattern recognition response elements. IFN-ε is constitutively expressed in mucosal tissues, including the female genital mucosa. Although the direct antiviral activity of IFN-ε was thought to be weak compared with IFN-α, IFN-ε controls
Carley Tasker, Selvakumar Subbian, Pan Gao, Jennifer Couret, Carly Levine, Saleena Ghanny, Patricia Soteropoulos, Xilin Zhao, Nathaniel Landau, Wuyuan Lu, Theresa L. Chang
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