While the treatment of inflammatory disorders is generally based on inhibiting factors that drive onset of inflammation, these therapies can compromise healing (NSAIDs) or dampen immunity against infections (biologics). In search of new antiinflammatories, efforts have focused on harnessing endogenous pathways that drive resolution of inflammation for therapeutic gain. Identification of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) (lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins) as effector molecules of resolution has shown promise in this regard. However, their action on inflammatory resolution in humans is unknown. Here, we demonstrate using a model of UV-killed Escherichia coli–triggered skin inflammation that SPMs are biosynthesized at the local site at the start of resolution, coinciding with the expression of receptors that transduce their actions. These include receptors for lipoxin A4 (ALX/FPR2), resolvin E1 (ChemR23), resolvin D2 (GPR18), and resolvin D1 (GPR32) that were differentially expressed on the endothelium and infiltrating leukocytes. Administering SPMs into the inflamed site 4 hours after bacterial injection caused a reduction in PMN numbers over the ensuing 6 hours, the phase of active resolution in this model. These results indicate that in humans, the appearance of SPMs and their receptors is associated with the beginning of inflammatory resolution and that their therapeutic supplementation enhanced the resolution response.
Madhur P. Motwani, Romain A. Colas, Marc J. George, Julia D. Flint, Jesmond Dalli, Angela Richard-Loendt, Roel P.H. De Maeyer, Charles N. Serhan, Derek W. Gilroy
Usage data is cumulative from October 2021 through October 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.