Abstract

Pulmonary disorders impact 40% to 80% of individuals with obesity. Respiratory muscle dysfunction is linked to these conditions; however, its pathophysiology remains largely undefined. Mice subjected to diet-induced obesity (DIO) develop diaphragmatic weakness. Increased intra-diaphragmatic adiposity and extracellular matrix (ECM) content correlate with reductions in contractile force. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is an obesity-associated matricellular protein linked with muscular damage in genetic myopathies. THBS1 induces proliferation of fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) — mesenchymal cells that differentiate into adipocytes and fibroblasts. We hypothesized that THBS1 drives FAP-mediated diaphragm remodeling and contractile dysfunction in DIO. We tested this by comparing the effects of dietary challenge on diaphragms of wild-type (WT) and Thbs1 knockout (Thbs1–/–) mice. Bulk and single-cell transcriptomics demonstrated DIO-induced stromal expansion in WT diaphragms. Diaphragm FAPs displayed upregulation of ECM and TGF β-related expression signatures and augmentation of a Thy1-expressing sub-population previously linked to type 2 diabetes. Despite similar weight gain, Thbs1–/– mice were protected from these transcriptomic changes and from obesity-induced increases in diaphragm adiposity and ECM deposition. Unlike WT controls, Thbs1–/– diaphragms maintained normal contractile force and motion after DIO challenge. These findings establish THBS1 as a necessary mediator of diaphragm stromal remodeling and contractile dysfunction in overnutrition and a potential therapeutic target in obesity-associated respiratory dysfunction.

Authors

Eric D. Buras, Moon-Sook Woo, Romil Kaul Verma, Sri Harshita Kondisetti, Carol S. Davis, Dennis R. Claflin, Kimber Converso-Baran, Daniel E. Michele, Susan V. Brooks, Tae-Hwa Chun

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