The combination of radiation therapy (RT) and immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment option in oncology. Historically, x-ray radiation (XRT) has been the most commonly used form of RT. However, proton beam therapy (PBT) is gaining recognition as a viable alternative, as it has been shown to produce similar outcomes to XRT while minimizing off-target effects. The effects of PBT on the antitumor immune response have only just begun to be described, and to our knowledge no studies to date have examined the effect of PBT as part of a combinatorial immunoradiotherapeutic strategy. Here, using a 2-tumor model of lung cancer in mice, we show that PBT in tandem with an anti-PD1 antibody substantially reduced growth in both irradiated and unirradiated tumors. This was accompanied by robust activation of the immune response, as evidenced by whole-tumor and single-cell RNA sequencing showing upregulation of a multitude of immune-related transcripts. This response was further significantly enhanced by the injection of the tumor to be irradiated with NBTXR3 nanoparticles. Tumors of mice treated with the triple combination exhibited increased infiltration and activation of cytotoxic immune cells. This triple combination eradicated both tumors in 37.5% of the treated mice and showed robust long-term immunity to cancer.
Yun Hu, Sébastien Paris, Narayan Sahoo, Genevieve Bertolet, Qi Wang, Qianxia Wang, Hampartsoum B. Barsoumian, Jordan Da Silva, Ailing Huang, Denaha J. Doss, David P. Pollock, Ethan Hsu, Nanez Selene, Claudia S. Kettlun Leyton, Tiffany A. Voss, Fatemeh Masrorpour, Shonik Ganjoo, Carola Leuschner, Jordan T. Pietz, Nahum Puebla-Osorio, Saumil Gandhi, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, Jing Wang, Maria Angelica Cortez, James W. Welsh
Triple therapy of NBTXR3, PBT, and αPD1 improves primary tumor control, abscopal effect, and survival in αPD1-resistant lung cancer.