A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is chronic inflammation, even in patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Chronic inflammation drives HIV-1 pathogenesis, leading to loss of CD4+ T cells and exhaustion of antiviral immunity. Therefore, strategies to safely reduce systematic inflammation are needed to halt disease progression and restore defective immune responses. Autophagy is a cellular mechanism for disposal of damaged organelles and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Autophagy is pivotal for energy homeostasis and plays critical roles in regulating immunity. However, how it regulates inflammation and antiviral T cell responses during HIV infection is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that autophagy is directly linked to IFN-I signaling, which is a key driver of immune activation and T cell exhaustion during chronic HIV infection. Impairment of autophagy leads to spontaneous IFN-I signaling, and autophagy induction reduces IFN-I signaling in monocytic cells. Importantly, in HIV-1–infected humanized mice, autophagy inducer rapamycin treatment significantly reduced persistent IFN-I–mediated inflammation and improved antiviral T cell responses. Cotreatment of rapamycin with ART led to significantly reduced viral rebound after ART withdrawal. Taken together, our data suggest that therapeutically targeting autophagy is a promising approach to treat persistent inflammation and improve immune control of HIV replication.
Wenli Mu, Valerie Rezek, Heather Martin, Mayra A. Carrillo, Shallu Tomer, Philip Hamid, Miguel A. Lizarraga, Tristan D. Tibbe, Otto O. Yang, Beth D. Jamieson, Scott G. Kitchen, Anjie Zhen
Usage data is cumulative from November 2022 through January 2023.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.