K-ras–mutant lung adenocarcinoma (KM-LUAD) is associated with abysmal prognosis and is tightly linked to tumor-promoting inflammation. A human mAb, canakinumab, targeting the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, significantly decreased the risk of lung cancer in the Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study. Interestingly, we found high levels of IL-1β in the lungs of mice with K-rasG12D–mutant tumors (CC-LR mice). Here, we blocked IL-1β using an anti–IL-1β mAb in cohorts of 6- or 14-week-old CC-LR mice to explore its preventive and therapeutic effect, respectively. IL-1β blockade significantly reduced lung tumor burden, which was associated with reprogramming of the lung microenvironment toward an antitumor phenotype characterized by increased infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (with high IFN-γ and granzyme B expression but low programmed cell death 1 [PD-1] expression) while suppressing neutrophils and polymorphonuclear (PMN) myeloid-derived suppressor cells. When querying the Cancer Genome Atlas data set, we found positive correlations between IL1B expression and infiltration of immunosuppressive PMNs and expression of their chemoattractant, CXCL1, and PDCD1 expressions in patients with KM-LUAD. Our data provide evidence that IL-1β blockade may be a preventive strategy for high-risk individuals and an alternative therapeutic approach in combination with currently available treatments for KM-LUAD.
Bo Yuan, Michael J. Clowers, Walter V. Velasco, Stephen Peng, Qian Peng, Yewen Shi, Marco Ramos-Castaneda, Melody Zarghooni, Shuanying Yang, Rachel L. Babcock, Seon Hee Chang, John V. Heymach, Jianjun Zhang, Edwin J. Ostrin, Stephanie S. Watowich, Humam Kadara, Seyed Javad Moghaddam