Blood clot formation initiates ischemic events, but coagulation roles during postischemic tissue repair are poorly understood. The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) regulates coagulation, as well as immune and vascular signaling, by protease activated receptors (PARs). Here, we show that endothelial EPCR-PAR1 signaling supports reperfusion and neovascularization in hindlimb ischemia in mice. Whereas deletion of PAR2 or PAR4 did not impair angiogenesis, EPCR and PAR1 deficiency or PAR1 resistance to cleavage by activated protein C caused markedly reduced postischemic reperfusion in vivo and angiogenesis in vitro. These findings were corroborated by biased PAR1 agonism in isolated primary endothelial cells. Loss of EPCR-PAR1 signaling upregulated hemoglobin expression and reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Defective angiogenic sprouting was rescued by the NO donor DETA-NO, whereas NO scavenging increased hemoglobin and mesenchymal marker expression in human and mouse endothelial cells. Vascular specimens from patients with ischemic peripheral artery disease exhibited increased hemoglobin expression, and soluble EPCR and NO levels were reduced in plasma. Our data implicate endothelial EPCR-PAR1 signaling in the hypoxic response of endothelial cells and identify suppression of hemoglobin expression as an unexpected link between coagulation signaling, preservation of endothelial cell NO bioavailability, support of neovascularization, and prevention of fibrosis.
Magdalena L. Bochenek, Rajinikanth Gogiraju, Stefanie Großmann, Janina Krug, Jennifer Orth, Sabine Reyda, George S. Georgiadis, Henri M. Spronk, Stavros Konstantinides, Thomas Münzel, John H. Griffin, Philipp Wild, Christine Espinola-Klein, Wolfram Ruf, Katrin Schäfer
Usage data is cumulative from June 2022 through August 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.