Current treatments fail to modify the underlying pathophysiology and disease progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), necessitating alternative therapies. Here, we show that COPD subjects have increased IL-36γ and decreased IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra) in bronchoalveolar and nasal fluid compared with control subjects. IL-36γ is derived from small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) and is further induced by a viral mimetic, whereas IL-36Ra is derived from macrophages. IL-36γ stimulates release of the neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1 and CXCL8, as well as elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from small airway fibroblasts (SAF). Proteases released from COPD neutrophils cleave and activate IL-36γ, thereby perpetuating IL-36 inflammation. Transfer of culture media from SAEC to SAF stimulated release of CXCL1, which was inhibited by exogenous IL-36Ra. The use of a therapeutic antibody that inhibits binding to the IL-36R attenuated IL-36γ–driven inflammation and cellular crosstalk. We have demonstrated a mechanism for the amplification and propagation of neutrophilic inflammation in COPD and have shown that blocking this cytokine family via a IL-36R neutralizing antibody could be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of COPD.
Jonathan R. Baker, Peter S. Fenwick, Carolin K. Koss, Harriet B. Owles, Sarah L. Elkin, Jay Fine, Matthew Thomas, Karim C. El Kasmi, Peter J. Barnes, Louise E. Donnelly
Usage data is cumulative from June 2022 through December 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.