Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) provides a highly informative means to investigate host-pathogen interactions and enable in vivo proof-of-concept efficacy testing of new drugs and vaccines. However, unlike Plasmodium falciparum, well-characterized P. vivax parasites that are safe and suitable for use in modern CHMI models are limited. Here, two healthy malaria-naïve UK adults with universal donor blood group were safely infected with a clone of P. vivax from Thailand by mosquito-bite CHMI. Parasitemia developed in both volunteers and, prior to treatment, each volunteer donated blood to produce a cryopreserved stabilate of infected red blood cells. Following stringent safety screening, the parasite stabilate from one of these donors (“PvW1”) was thawed and used to inoculate six healthy malaria-naïve UK adults by blood-stage CHMI, at three different dilutions. Parasitemia developed in all volunteers, who were then successfully drug treated. PvW1 parasite DNA was isolated and sequenced to produce a high quality genome assembly by using a hybrid assembly method. We analysed leading vaccine candidate antigens and multigene families, including the Vivax interspersed repeat (VIR) genes of which we identified 1145 in the PvW1 genome. Our genomic analysis will guide future assessment of candidate vaccines and drugs, as well as experimental medicine studies.
Angela M. Minassian, Yrene Themistocleous, Sarah E. Silk, Jordan R. Barrett, Alison Kemp, Doris Quinkert, Carolyn M. Nielsen, Nick J. Edwards, Thomas A. Rawlinson, Fernando Ramos Lopez, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Katherine J.D. Ellis, Jee-Sun Cho, Eerik Aunin, Thomas D. Otto, Adam J. Reid, Florian A. Bach, Geneviève M.C. Labbé, Ian D. Poulton, Arianna Marini, Marija Zaric, Margaux Mulatier, Raquel Lopez Ramon, Megan Baker, Celia H. Mitton, Jason C. Sousa, Nattawan Rachaphaew, Chalermpon Kumpitak, Nongnuj Maneechai, Chayanut Suansomjit, Tianrat Piteekan, Mimi M. Hou, Baktash Khozoee, Kirsty McHugh, David J. Roberts, Alison M. Lawrie, Andrew M. Blagborough, Fay L. Nugent, Iona J. Taylor, Kimberly J. Johnson, Philip J. Spence, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Sumi Biswas, Julian C. Rayner, Simon J. Draper