Active immunization with the apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) peptide P210 reduces experimental atherosclerosis. To advance this immunization strategy to future clinical testing, we explored the possibility of delivering P210 as an antigen using nanoparticles, given this approach has been used clinically. We first characterized the responses of T cells to P210 using PBMCs from patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We then investigated the use of P210 in self-assembling peptide amphiphile micelles (P210-PAMs) as a vaccine formulation to reduce atherosclerosis in B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc/J (ApoE–/–) mice and P210’s potential mechanisms of action. We also generated and characterized a humanized mouse model with chimeric HLA-A*02:01/Kb in ApoE–/– background to test the efficacy of P210-PAM immunization as a bridge to future clinical testing. P210 provoked T cell activation and memory response in PBMCs of patients with ASCVD. Dendritic cell uptake of P210-PAM and its costaining with MHC-I molecules supported its use as a vaccine formulation. In ApoE–/– mice, immunization with P210-PAMs dampened P210-specific CD4+ T cell proliferative response and CD8+ T cell cytolytic response, modulated macrophage phenotype, and significantly reduced aortic atherosclerosis. Potential clinical relevance of P210-PAM immunization was demonstrated by reduced atherosclerosis in the humanized ApoE–/– mouse model. Our data support experimental and translational use of P210-PAM as a potential vaccine candidate against human ASCVD.
Kuang-Yuh Chyu, Xiaoning Zhao, Jianchang Zhou, Paul C. Dimayuga, Nicole W.M. Lio, Bojan Cercek, Noah T. Trac, Eun Ji Chung, Prediman K. Shah
Usage data is cumulative from May 2022 through December 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.