Novel therapeutic strategies targeting glioblastoma (GBM) often fail in the clinic, partly because preclinical models in which hypotheses are being tested do not recapitulate human disease. To address this challenge, we took advantage of our previously developed spontaneous Qk/Trp53/Pten (QPP) triple-knockout model of human GBM, comparing the immune microenvironment of QPP mice with that of patient-derived tumors to determine whether this model provides opportunity for gaining insights into tumor physiopathology and preclinical evaluation of therapeutic agents. Immune profiling analyses and single-cell sequencing of implanted and spontaneous tumors from QPP mice and from patients with glioma revealed intratumoral immune components that were predominantly myeloid cells (e.g., monocytes, macrophages, and microglia), with minor populations of T, B, and NK cells. When comparing spontaneous and implanted mouse samples, we found more neutrophils and T and NK cells in the implanted model. Neutrophils and T and NK cells were increased in abundance in samples derived from human high-grade glioma compared with those derived from low-grade glioma. Overall, our data demonstrate that our implanted and spontaneous QPP models recapitulate the immunosuppressive myeloid-dominant nature of the tumor microenvironment of human gliomas. Our model provides a suitable tool for investigating the complex immune compartment of gliomas.
Daniel B. Zamler, Takashi Shingu, Laura M. Kahn, Kristin Huntoon, Cynthia Kassab, Martina Ott, Katarzyna Tomczak, Jintan Liu, Yating Li, Ivy Lai, Rocio Zorilla-Veloz, Cassian Yee, Kunal Rai, Betty Y.S. Kim, Stephanie S. Watowich, Amy B. Heimberger, Giulio F. Draetta, Jian Hu
Usage data is cumulative from June 2022 through March 2023.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.