Lack of sustained response to therapeutic agents in patients with KRAS-mutant lung cancer poses a major challenge and arises partly due to intratumor heterogeneity that defines phenotypically distinct tumor subpopulations. To attain better therapeutic outcomes, it is important to understand the differential therapeutic sensitivities of tumor cell subsets. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a biological phenomenon that can alter the state of cells along a phenotypic spectrum and cause transcriptional rewiring to produce distinct tumor cell subpopulations. We utilized functional shRNA screens, in in vitro and in vivo models, to identify and validate an increased dependence of mesenchymal tumor cells on cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) for survival, as well as a mechanism of resistance to MEK inhibitors. High zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 levels in mesenchymal tumor cells repressed p21, leading to perturbed CDK4 pathway activity. Increased dependence on CDK4 rendered mesenchymal cancer cells particularly vulnerable to selective CDK4 inhibitors. Coadministration of CDK4 and MEK inhibitors in heterogeneous tumors effectively targeted different tumor subpopulations, subverting the resistance to either single-agent treatment.
Aparna Padhye, Jessica M. Konen, B. Leticia Rodriguez, Jared J. Fradette, Joshua K. Ochieng, Lixia Diao, Jing Wang, Wei Lu, Luisa S. Solis, Harsh Batra, Maria G. Raso, Michael D. Peoples, Rosalba Minelli, Alessandro Carugo, Christopher A. Bristow, Don L. Gibbons
Usage data is cumulative from December 2022 through December 2023.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.