Hypoxia is associated with tumor radioresistance; therefore, a predictive marker for tumor hypoxia and a rational target to overcome it have been sought to realize personalized radiotherapy. Here, we show that serine protease inhibitor Kazal type I (SPINK1) meets these 2 criteria. SPINK1 expression was induced upon hypoxia (O2 < 0.1%) at the transcription initiation level in a HIF-dependent manner, causing an increase in secreted SPINK1 levels. SPINK1 proteins were detected both within and around hypoxic regions of xenografted and clinical tumor tissues, and their plasma levels increased in response to decreased oxygen supply to xenografts. Secreted SPINK1 proteins enhanced radioresistance of cancer cells even under normoxic conditions in EGFR-dependent and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2–dependent (Nrf2-dependent) manners and accelerated tumor growth after radiotherapy. An anti-SPINK1 neutralizing antibody exhibited a radiosensitizing effect. These results suggest that SPINK1 secreted from hypoxic cells protects the surrounding and relatively oxygenated cancer cells from radiation in a paracrine manner, justifying the use of SPINK1 as a target for radiosensitization and a plasma marker for predicting tumor hypoxia.
Tatsuya Suwa, Minoru Kobayashi, Yukari Shirai, Jin-Min Nam, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Norihiko Takeda, Shusuke Akamatsu, Osamu Ogawa, Takashi Mizowaki, Ester M. Hammond, Hiroshi Harada
Usage data is cumulative from November 2021 through June 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.