The splenic microenvironment regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function, particularly during demand-adapted hematopoiesis, however practical strategies to enhance splenic support of transplanted HSPCs have proven elusive. We have previously demonstrated that inhibiting 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), using the small molecule (+)SW033291 (PGDHi), increases bone marrow (BM) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, expands HSPC numbers, and accelerates hematologic reconstitution following BM transplantation (BMT) in mice. Here we demonstrate that the splenic microenvironment, specifically 15-PGDH high-expressing macrophages (MΦs), megakaryocytes (MKs), and mast cells (MCs), regulates steady-state hematopoiesis and potentiates recovery after BMT. Notably, PGDHi-induced neutrophil, platelet, and HSPC recovery were highly attenuated in splenectomized mice. PGDHi induced non-pathologic splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis at steady-state, and pre-transplant PGDHi enhanced the homing of transplanted cells to the spleen. 15-PGDH enzymatic activity localized specifically to MΦs, MK lineage cells, and MCs, identifying these cell types as likely coordinating the impact of PGDHi on splenic HSPCs. These findings suggest that 15-PGDH expression marks novel HSC niche cell types that regulate hematopoietic regeneration. Therefore, PGDHi provides a well-tolerated strategy to therapeutically target multiple HSC niches and to promote hematopoietic regeneration and improve clinical outcomes of BMT.


Julianne N.P. Smith, Dawn M. Dawson, Kelsey F. Christo, Alvin P. Jogasuria, Mark J. Cameron, Monika I. Antczak, Joseph M. Ready, Stanton L. Gerson, Sanford D. Markowitz, Amar B. Desai


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