Discovery strategies commonly focus on the identification of chemical libraries or natural products, but the modulation of endogenous ligands offers a much better therapeutic strategy due to their low adverse potential. Recently, we found that hexadecanamide (Hex) is present in hippocampal nuclei of normal mice as an endogenous ligand of PPARα. This study underlines the importance of Hex in inducing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from hippocampal neurons via PPARα. The level of Hex was lower in the hippocampi of 5XFAD mice as compared with that in non-Tg mice. Oral administration of Hex increased the level of this molecule in the hippocampus to stimulate BDNF and its downstream plasticity-associated molecules, promote synaptic functions in the hippocampus, and improve memory and learning in 5XFAD mice. However, oral Hex remained unable to stimulate hippocampal plasticity and improve cognitive behaviors in 5XFADPparα-null and 5XFADPparα-ΔHippo mice, indicating an essential role of hippocampal PPARα in Hex-mediated improvement in hippocampal functions. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge of protection of hippocampal functions by oral administration of a hippocampus-based drug, suggesting that Hex may be explored for therapeutic intervention in AD.
Dhruv Patel, Avik Roy, Sumita Raha, Madhuchhanda Kundu, Frank J. Gonzalez, Kalipada Pahan
This file is in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. If you have not installed and configured the Adobe Acrobat Reader on your system.
PDFs are designed to be printed out and read, but if you prefer to read them online, you may find it easier if you increase the view size to 125%.
Many versions of the free Acrobat Reader do not allow Save. You must instead save the PDF from the JCI Online page you downloaded it from. PC users: Right-click on the Download link and choose the option that says something like "Save Link As...". Mac users should hold the mouse button down on the link to get these same options.