Recovery from measles results in life-long protective immunity. To understand induction of long-term immunity, rhesus macaques were studied for 6 months after infection with wild-type measles virus (MeV). Infection caused viremia and rash, with clearance of infectious virus by day 14. MeV RNA persisted in PBMCs for 30–90 days and in lymphoid tissue for 6 months most often in B cells but was rarely detected in BM. Antibody with neutralizing activity and binding specificity for MeV nucleocapsid (N), hemagglutinin (H), and fusion proteins appeared with the rash and avidity matured over 3–4 months. Lymph nodes had increasing numbers of MeV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) and germinal centers with late hyalinization. ASCs appeared in circulation with the rash and continued to appear along with peripheral T follicular helper cells for the study duration. ASCs in lymph nodes and PBMCs produced antibody against both H and N, with more H-specific ASCs in BM. During days 14–21, 20- to 100-fold more total ASCs than MeV-specific ASCs appeared in circulation, suggesting mobilization of preexisting ASCs. Therefore, persistence of MeV RNA in lymphoid tissue was accompanied by continued germinal center formation, ASC production, avidity maturation, and accumulation of H-specific ASCs in BM to sustain neutralizing antibody and protective immunity.
Ashley N. Nelson, Wen-Hsuan W. Lin, Rupak Shivakoti, Nicole E. Putnam, Lisa Mangus, Robert J. Adams, Debra Hauer, Victoria K. Baxter, Diane E. Griffin
Usage data is cumulative from January 2020 through February 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.