The aim of this study was to elucidate the role and the pathways used by bile acid receptor TGR5 in transmitting satiety signals. We showed TGR5 colocalized with cholecystokinin type A (CCK-A) receptors in a subpopulation of rat nodose ganglia (NG) neurons. Intra-arterial injection of deoxycholic acid (DCA) dose-dependently increased firing rate in NG while a subthreshold dose of DCA and CCK-8 increased firing rates synergistically. TGR5-specific agonist oleanolic acid induced NG neuronal firing in a dose-dependent manner. However, the same units did not respond to GW4064, a nuclear receptor–specific agonist. Quantity of DCA-activated neurons in the hypothalamus was determined by c-Fos expression. Combining DCA and CCK-8 caused a 4-fold increase in c-Fos activation. In the arcuate nucleus, c-Fos–positive neurons coexpressed cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. DCA-induced c-Fos expression was eliminated following truncal vagotomy or silencing of TGR5 in the NG. Feeding studies showed intravenous injection of 1 μg/kg of DCA reduced food intake by 12% ± 3%, 24% ± 5%, and 32% ± 6% in the first 3 hours, respectively. Silencing of TGR5 or CCK-A receptor in the NG enhanced spontaneous feeding by 18% ± 2% and 13.5% ± 2.4%, respectively. When both TGR5 and CCK-A receptor were silenced, spontaneous feeding was enhanced by 37% ± 4% in the first 3 hours, suggesting that bile acid may have a physiological role in regulating satiety. Working in concert with CCK, bile acid synergistically enhanced satiety signals to reduce spontaneous feeding.
Xiaoyin Wu, Ji-Yao Li, Allen Lee, Yuan-Xu Lu, Shi-Yi Zhou, Chung Owyang
Usage data is cumulative from July 2020 through September 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.