Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a rare monogenic disease caused by deficiency of the salvage pathway enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT). LND is characterized by severe neuropsychiatric symptoms that currently cannot be treated. Predictive in vivo models are lacking for screening and evaluating candidate drugs because LND-associated neurological symptoms are not recapitulated in HGPRT-deficient animals. Here, we used human neural stem cells and neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of children affected with LND to identify neural phenotypes of interest associated with HGPRT deficiency to develop a target-agnostic–based drug screening system. We screened more than 3000 molecules and identified 6 pharmacological compounds, all possessing an adenosine moiety, that corrected HGPRT deficiency–associated neuronal phenotypes by promoting metabolism compensations in an HGPRT-independent manner. This included S-adenosylmethionine, a compound that had already been used as a compassionate approach to ease the neuropsychiatric symptoms in LND. Interestingly, these compounds compensate abnormal metabolism in a manner complementary to the gold standard allopurinol and can be provided to patients with LND via simple food supplementation. This experimental paradigm can be easily adapted to other metabolic disorders affecting normal brain development and functioning in the absence of a relevant animal model.
Valentin Ruillier, Johana Tournois, Claire Boissart, Marie Lasbareilles, Gurvan Mahé, Laure Chatrousse, Michel Cailleret, Marc Peschanski, Alexandra Benchoua