Perturbations in biomechanical stimuli during cardiac development contribute to congenital cardiac defects such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). This study sought to identify stretch-responsive pathways involved in cardiac development. miRNA-Seq identified miR-486 as being increased in cardiomyocytes exposed to cyclic stretch in vitro. The right ventricles (RVs) of patients with HLHS experienced increased stretch and had a trend toward higher miR-486 levels. Sheep RVs dilated from excessive pulmonary blood flow had 60% more miR-486 compared with control RVs. The left ventricles of newborn mice treated with miR-486 mimic were 16.9%–24.6% larger and displayed a 2.48-fold increase in cardiomyocyte proliferation. miR-486 treatment decreased FoxO1 and Smad signaling while increasing the protein levels of Stat1. Stat1 associated with Gata-4 and serum response factor (Srf), 2 key cardiac transcription factors with protein levels that increase in response to miR-486. This is the first report to our knowledge of a stretch-responsive miRNA that increases the growth of the ventricle in vivo.


Stephan Lange, Indroneal Banerjee, Katrina Carrion, Ricardo Serrano, Louisa Habich, Rebecca Kameny, Luisa Lengenfelder, Nancy Dalton, Rudolph Meili, Emma Börgeson, Kirk Peterson, Marco Ricci, Joy Lincoln, Majid Ghassemian, Jeffery Fineman, Juan C. del Álamo, Vishal Nigam


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