Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS. Although neurodegeneration is the major contributor to chronic disability in MS, mechanisms governing the viability of axons and neurons in MS and EAE remain elusive. Data indicate that activation of pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) influences, positively or negatively, neuron and axon viability in various neurodegenerative diseases through induction of ATF4. In this study, we demonstrate that the PERK pathway was activated in neurons during EAE. We found that neuron-specific PERK inactivation impaired EAE resolution and exacerbated EAE-induced axon degeneration, neuron loss, and demyelination. Surprisingly, neuron-specific ATF4 inactivation did not alter EAE disease course or EAE-induced axon degeneration, neuron loss, and demyelination. These results suggest that PERK activation in neurons protects axons and neurons against inflammation in MS and EAE through ATF4-independent mechanisms.
Sarrabeth Stone, Yuan Yue, Milos Stanojlovic, Shuangchan Wu, Gerard Karsenty, Wensheng Lin
Usage data is cumulative from January 2019 through October 2019.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.