Glioblastoma (GBM) remains uniformly lethal, and despite a large accumulation of immune cells in the microenvironment, there is limited antitumor immune response. To overcome these challenges, a comprehensive understanding of GBM systemic immune response during disease progression is required. Here, we integrated multiparameter flow cytometry and mass cytometry TOF (CyTOF) analysis of patient blood to determine changes in the immune system among tumor types and over disease progression. Utilizing flow cytometry analysis in a cohort of 259 patients ranging from benign to malignant primary and metastatic brain tumors, we found that GBM patients had a significant elevation in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in peripheral blood but not immunosuppressive Tregs. In GBM patient tissue, we found that increased MDSC levels in recurrent GBM portended poor prognosis. CyTOF analysis of peripheral blood from newly diagnosed GBM patients revealed that reduced MDSCs over time were accompanied by a concomitant increase in DCs. GBM patients with extended survival also had reduced MDSCs, similar to the levels of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients. Our findings provide a rationale for developing strategies to target MDSCs, which are elevated in GBM patients and predict poor prognosis.
Tyler J. Alban, Alvaro G. Alvarado, Mia D. Sorensen, Defne Bayik, Josephine Volovetz, Emily Serbinowski, Erin E. Mulkearns-Hubert, Maksim Sinyuk, James S. Hale, Giovana R. Onzi, Mary McGraw, Pengjing Huang, Matthew M. Grabowski, Connor A. Wathen, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia, Tomas Radivoyevitch, Harley I. Kornblum, Bjarne W. Kristensen, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Justin D. Lathia