In this issue, Ferguson and colleagues explore the mechanisms by which salt promotes inflammation and hypertension. Their study provides evidence in humans and mice that salt consumption promotes changes to the gut microbiome that drive salt-induced inflammation and hypertension. The cover image shows immune cell infiltration (anti-CD3, brown) in the intestine of a mouse fed a high-salt diet.
Sex-based differences influence incidence and outcome of infectious disease. Women have a significantly greater incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) than men, yet, conversely, male UTI is more persistent, with greater associated morbidity. Mechanisms underlying these sex-based differences are unknown, in part due to a lack of experimental models. We optimized a model to transurethrally infect male mice and directly compared UTI in both sexes. Although both sexes were initially equally colonized by uropathogenic E. coli, only male and testosterone-treated female mice remained chronically infected for up to 4 weeks. Female mice had more robust innate responses, including higher IL-17 expression, and increased γδ T cells and group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the bladder following infection. Accordingly, neutralizing IL-17 abolished resolution in female mice, identifying a cytokine pathway necessary for bacterial clearance. Our findings support the concept that sex-based responses to UTI contribute to impaired innate immunity in males and provide a rationale for non–antibiotic-based immune targeting to improve the response to UTI.
Anna Zychlinsky Scharff, Matthieu Rousseau, Livia Lacerda Mariano, Tracy Canton, Camila Rosat Consiglio, Matthew L. Albert, Magnus Fontes, Darragh Duffy, Molly A. Ingersoll
Rheumatoid arthritis is linked with altered host immune responses and severe joint destruction. Recent evidence suggests that loss of gut homeostasis and barrier breach by pathobionts, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, may influence disease severity. The mechanism(s) leading to altered gut homeostasis and barrier breakdown in inflammatory arthritis are poorly understood. In the present study, we found a significant reduction in intestinal concentrations of several proresolving mediators during inflammatory arthritis, including downregulation of the gut-protective mediator resolvin D5n-3 DPA (RvD5n-3 DPA). This was linked with increased metabolism of RvD5n-3 DPA to its inactive 17-oxo metabolite. We also found downregulation of IL-10 expression in the gut of arthritic mice that was coupled with a reduction in IL-10 and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) in lamina propria macrophages. These changes were linked with a decrease in the number of mucus-producing goblet cells and tight junction molecule expression in the intestinal epithelium of arthritic mice when compared with naive mice. P. gingivalis inoculation further downregulated intestinal RvD5n-3 DPA and Il-10 levels and the expression of gut tight junction proteins. RvD5n-3 DPA, but not its metabolite 17-oxo-RvD5n-3 DPA, increased the expression of both IL-10 and IL-10R in macrophages via the upregulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist l-kynurenine. Administration of RvD5n-3 DPA to arthritic P. gingivalis–inoculated mice increased intestinal Il-10 expression, restored gut barrier function, and reduced joint inflammation. Together, these findings uncover mechanisms in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, where disruption of the gut RvD5n-3 DPA–IL-10 axis weakens the gut barrier, which becomes permissive to the pathogenic actions of the pathobiont P. gingivalis.
Magdalena B. Flak, Romain A. Colas, Estefanía Muñoz-Atienza, Michael A. Curtis, Jesmond Dalli, Costantino Pitzalis
Bone provides supportive microenvironments for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and is a frequent site of metastasis. While incidences of bone metastases increase with age, the properties of the bone marrow microenvironment that regulate dormancy and reactivation of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the age-associated changes in the bone secretome that trigger proliferation of HSCs, MSCs, and DTCs in the aging bone marrow microenvironment. Remarkably, a bone-specific mechanism involving expansion of pericytes and induction of quiescence-promoting secretome rendered this proliferative microenvironment resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. This bone-specific expansion of pericytes was triggered by an increase in PDGF signaling via remodeling of specialized type H blood vessels in response to therapy. The decline in bone marrow pericytes upon aging provides an explanation for loss of quiescence and expansion of cancer cells in the aged bone marrow microenvironment. Manipulation of blood flow — specifically, reduced blood flow — inhibited pericyte expansion, regulated endothelial PDGF-B expression, and rendered bone metastatic cancer cells susceptible to radiation and chemotherapy. Thus, our study provides a framework to recognize bone marrow vascular niches in age-associated increases in metastasis and to target angiocrine signals in therapeutic strategies to manage bone metastasis.
Amit Singh, Vimal Veeriah, Pengjun Xi, Rossella Labella, Junyu Chen, Sara G. Romeo, Saravana K. Ramasamy, Anjali P. Kusumbe
Many cytokines and chemokines that are important for hematopoiesis activate the PI3K signaling pathway. Because this pathway is frequently mutated and activated in cancer, PI3K inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of several malignancies and are now being tested in the clinic in combination with chemotherapy. However, the role of PI3K in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), particularly during hematopoietic stress, is still unclear. We previously showed that the individual PI3K catalytic isoforms p110α and p110β have dispensable roles in HSC function, suggesting redundancy between PI3K isoforms in HSCs. We now demonstrate that simultaneous deletion of p110α and p110δ in double-knockout (DKO) HSCs uncovers their redundant requirement in HSC cycling after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy administration. In contrast, DKO HSCs were still able to exit quiescence in response to other stress stimuli, such as LPS. We found that DKO HSCs and progenitors had impaired sensing of inflammatory signals ex vivo, and that levels of IL-1β and MIG were higher in the bone marrow (BM) after LPS than after 5-FU administration. Furthermore, exogenous in vivo administration of IL-1β could induce cell cycle entry of DKO HSCs. Our findings have clinical implications for the use of PI3K inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy.
Shayda Hemmati, Taneisha Sinclair, Meng Tong, Boris Bartholdy, Rachel O. Okabe, Kristina Ames, Leanne Ostrodka, Tamanna Haque, Imit Kaur, Taylor S. Mills, Anupriya Agarwal, Eric M. Pietras, Jean J. Zhao, Thomas M. Roberts, Kira Gritsman
The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) occupies a central metabolic node by transporting cytosolic pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix and linking glycolysis with mitochondrial metabolism. Two reported human MPC1 mutations cause developmental abnormalities, neurological problems, metabolic deficits, and for one patient, early death. We aimed to understand biochemical mechanisms by which the human patient C289T and T236A MPC1 alleles disrupt MPC function. MPC1 C289T encodes 2 protein variants, a misspliced, truncation mutant (A58G) and a full-length point mutant (R97W). MPC1 T236A encodes a full-length point mutant (L79H). Using human patient fibroblasts and complementation of CRISPR-deleted, MPC1-null mouse C2C12 cells, we investigated how MPC1 mutations cause MPC deficiency. Truncated MPC1 A58G protein was intrinsically unstable and failed to form MPC complexes. The MPC1 R97W protein was less stable but, when overexpressed, formed complexes with MPC2 that retained pyruvate transport activity. Conversely, MPC1 L79H protein formed stable complexes with MPC2, but these complexes failed to transport pyruvate. These findings inform MPC structure-function relationships and delineate 3 distinct biochemical pathologies resulting from 2 human patient MPC1 mutations. They also illustrate an efficient gene pass-through system for mechanistically investigating human inborn errors in pyruvate metabolism.
Lalita Oonthonpan, Adam J. Rauckhorst, Lawrence R. Gray, Audrey C. Boutron, Eric B. Taylor
We induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) with adenine in WT mice, mice with osteocyte-specific deletion of Cyp27b1, encoding the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1(OH)ase [Oct-1(OH)ase–/–], and mice with global deletion of Cyp27b1 [global-1α(OH)ase–/–]; we then compared extraskeletal calcification. After adenine treatment, mice displayed increased blood urea nitrogen, decreased serum 1,25(OH)2D, and severe hyperparathyroidism. Skeletal expression of Cyp27b1 and of sclerostin and serum sclerostin all increased in WT mice but not in Oct-1α(OH)ase–/– mice or global-1α(OH)ase–/– mice. In contrast, skeletal expression of BMP2 and serum BMP2 rose in the Oct-1α(OH)ase–/– mice and in the global-1α(OH)ase–/– mice. Extraskeletal calcification occurred in muscle and blood vessels of mice with CKD and was highest in Oct-1α(OH)ase–/–mice. In vitro, recombinant sclerostin (100 ng/mL) significantly suppressed BMP2-induced osteoblastic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle A7r5 cells and diminished BMP2-induced mineralization. Our study provides evidence that local osteocytic production of 1,25(OH)2D stimulates sclerostin and inhibits BMP2 production in murine CKD, thus mitigating osteoblastic transdifferentiation and mineralization of soft tissues. Increased osteocytic 1,25(OH)2D production, triggered by renal malfunction, may represent a “primary defensive response” to protect the organism from ectopic calcification by increasing sclerostin and suppressing BMP2 production.
Loan Nguyen-Yamamoto, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Rene St–Arnaud, David Goltzman
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily a nonfamilial, age-related disorder caused by α-synuclein accumulation and the progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). GPCR-cAMP signaling has been linked to a reduction in human PD incidence and α-synuclein expression. Neuronal cAMP levels are controlled by GPCRs coupled to Gs or Gi/o, which increase or decrease cAMP, respectively. Regulator of G protein signaling 6 (RGS6) powerfully inhibits Gi/o signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that RGS6 suppresses D2 autoreceptor-Gi/o signaling in SNc dopamine neurons promoting neuronal survival and reducing α-synuclein expression. Here, we provide potentially novel evidence that RGS6 critically suppresses late-age-onset SNc dopamine neuron loss and α-synuclein accumulation. RGS6 is restrictively expressed in human SNc dopamine neurons and, despite their loss in PD, all surviving neurons express RGS6. RGS6–/– mice exhibit hyperactive D2 autoreceptors with reduced cAMP signaling in SNc dopamine neurons. Importantly, RGS6–/– mice recapitulate key sporadic PD hallmarks, including SNc dopamine neuron loss, reduced nigrostriatal dopamine, motor deficits, and α-synuclein accumulation. To our knowledge, Rgs6 is the only gene whose loss phenocopies these features of human PD. Therefore, RGS6 is a key regulator of D2R-Gi/o signaling in SNc dopamine neurons, protecting against PD neurodegeneration and α-synuclein accumulation.
Zili Luo, Katelin E. Ahlers-Dannen, Mackenzie M. Spicer, Jianqi Yang, Stephanie Alberico, Hanna E. Stevens, Nandakumar S. Narayanan, Rory A. Fisher
BACKGROUND Sphingolipids (SPs) are ubiquitous, structurally diverse molecules that include ceramides, sphingomyelins (SMs), and sphingosines. They are involved in various pathologies, including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, it is likely that perturbations in plasma concentrations of SPs are associated with disease. Identifying these associations may reveal useful biomarkers or provide insight into disease processes.METHODS We performed a lipidomics evaluation of molecularly distinct SPs in the plasma of 2302 ethnically Chinese Singaporeans using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography. SP profiles were compared to clinical and biochemical characteristics, and subjects were evaluated with follow-up visits for 11 years.RESULTS We found that ceramides correlated positively but hexosylceramides correlated negatively with BMI and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Furthermore, SPs with a d16:1 sphingoid backbone correlated more positively with BMI and HOMA-IR, while d18:2 SPs correlated less positively, relative to canonical d18:1 SPs. We also found that higher concentrations of 2 distinct SMs were associated with a higher risk of T2DM (HR 1.45 with 95% CI 1.18–1.78 for SM d16:1/18:0 and HR 1.40 with 95% CI 1.17–1.68 for SM d18:1/18:0).CONCLUSIONS We identified significant associations between SPs and obesity/T2DM characteristics, specifically, those of hexosylceramides, d16:1 SPs, and d18:2 SPs. This suggests that the balance of SP metabolism, rather than ceramide accumulation, is associated with the pathology of obesity. We further identified 2 specific SPs that may represent prognostic biomarkers for T2DM.FUNDING National University Health System (NUHSRO/2014/085/AF-Partner/01) and the National Research Foundation Investigatorship grant (NRF-NRFI2015-05).
Wee Siong Chew, Federico Torta, Shanshan Ji, Hyungwon Choi, Husna Begum, Xueling Sim, Chin Meng Khoo, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, Wei-Yi Ong, Rob M. Van Dam, Markus R. Wenk, E. Shyong Tai, Deron R. Herr
Acute rejection of human allografts has been viewed mostly through the lens of adaptive immunity, and the intragraft landscape of innate immunity genes has not been characterized in an unbiased fashion. We performed RNA sequencing of 34 kidney allograft biopsy specimens from 34 adult recipients; 16 were categorized as Banff acute T cell–mediated rejection (TCMR) and 18 as normal. Computational analysis of intragraft mRNA transcriptome identified significantly higher abundance of mRNA for pattern recognition receptors in TCMR compared with normal biopsies, as well as increased expression of mRNAs for cytokines, chemokines, interferons, and caspases. Intragraft levels of calcineurin mRNA were higher in TCMR biopsies, suggesting underimmunosuppression compared with normal biopsies. Cell-type-enrichment analysis revealed higher abundance of dendritic cells and macrophages in TCMR biopsies. Damage-associated molecular patterns, the endogenous ligands for pattern recognition receptors, as well markers of DNA damage were higher in TCMR. mRNA expression patterns supported increased calcium flux and indices of endoplasmic, cellular oxidative, and mitochondrial stress were higher in TCMR. Expression of mRNAs in major metabolic pathways was decreased in TCMR. Our global and unbiased transcriptome profiling identified heightened expression of innate immune system genes during an episode of TCMR in human kidney allografts.
Franco B. Mueller, Hua Yang, Michelle Lubetzky, Akanksha Verma, John R. Lee, Darshana M. Dadhania, Jenny Z. Xiang, Steven P. Salvatore, Surya V. Seshan, Vijay K. Sharma, Olivier Elemento, Manikkam Suthanthiran, Thangamani Muthukumar
Influenza-associated mortality continues to occur annually despite available antiviral therapies. New therapies that improve host immunity could reduce influenza virus disease burden. Targeting macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has improved the outcomes of certain inflammatory diseases, but its role in influenza viral infection is unclear. Here, we showed that, during influenza viral infection, Mif-deficient mice have less inflammation, viral load, and mortality compared with WT control mice; conversely, Tg mice, overexpressing Mif in alveolar epithelial cells, had higher inflammation, viral load, and mortality. Antibody-mediated blockade of MIF in WT mice during influenza viral infection improved their survival. Mif-deficient murine lungs showed reduced levels of parkin, a mitophagy protein that negatively regulates antiviral signaling, prior to infection and augmented antiviral type I/III IFN levels in the airspaces after infection as compared with WT lungs. Additionally, in vitro assays with human lung epithelial cells showed that treatment with recombinant human MIF increased the percentage of influenza virus–infected cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that MIF impairs antiviral host immunity and increases inflammation during influenza infection and suggests that targeting MIF could be therapeutically beneficial during influenza viral infection.
Candice A. Smith, Daniel J. Tyrell, Upasana A. Kulkarni, Sherri Wood, Lin Leng, Rachel L. Zemans, Richard Bucala, Daniel R. Goldstein
Oncolytic viruses induce local tumor destruction and inflammation. Whether virotherapy can also overcome immunosuppression in noninfected tumor areas is under debate. To address this question, we have explored immunologic effects of oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSVs) in a genetically engineered mouse model of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Our model recapitulates the genomics, the diffuse infiltrative growth pattern, and the extensive macrophage-dominant immunosuppression of human glioblastoma. Infection with an oHSV that was armed with a UL16-binding protein 3 (ULBP3) expression cassette inhibited distant tumor growth in the absence of viral spreading (abscopal effect) and yielded accumulation of activated macrophages and T cells. There was also abscopal synergism of oHSVULBP3 with anti–programmed cell death 1 (anti–PD-1) against distant, uninfected tumor areas; albeit consistent with clinical trials in patients with glioblastoma, monotherapy with anti–PD-1 was ineffective in our model. Arming oHSV with ULBP3 led to upregulation of antigen processing and presentation gene sets in myeloid cells. The cognate ULBP3 receptor NKG2D, however, is not present on myeloid cells, suggesting a noncanonical mechanism of action of ULBP3. Overall, the myeloid-dominant, anti–PD-1–sensitive abscopal effect of oHSVULBP3 warrants further investigation in patients with IDH wild-type glioblastoma.
Hans-Georg Wirsching, Huajia Zhang, Frank Szulzewsky, Sonali Arora, Paola Grandi, Patrick J. Cimino, Nduka Amankulor, Jean S. Campbell, Lisa McFerrin, Siobhan S. Pattwell, Chibawanye Ene, Alexandra Hicks, Michael Ball, James Yan, Jenny Zhang, Debrah Kumasaka, Robert H. Pierce, Michael Weller, Mitchell Finer, Christophe Quéva, Joseph C. Glorioso, A. McGarry Houghton, Eric C. Holland
BACKGROUND Physical function decreases with age, and though bioenergetic alterations contribute to this decline, the mechanisms by which mitochondrial function changes with age remain unclear. This is partially because human mitochondrial studies require invasive procedures, such as muscle biopsies, to obtain live tissue with functional mitochondria. However, recent studies demonstrate that blood cells are potentially informative in identifying systemic bioenergetic changes. Here, we hypothesize that human platelet bioenergetics reflect bioenergetics measured in muscle biopsies.METHODS Bioenergetics were measured in platelets isolated from younger (18–35 years) and older (86–93 years) adults by extracellular flux analysis. Muscle biopsy respirometry and noninvasive 31P-MRS were also performed in older adults.RESULTS Maximal and ATP-linked respiratory rate measured in platelets from older adults correlated significantly with muscle maximal respiration (r = 0.595; P = 0.003) and maximal ATP production (r = 0.643; P = 0.004; by 31P-MRS) in the same individuals. Comparison of platelet bioenergetics in older and younger adults showed lower basal and ATP-linked respiration in older adults. Platelets from older adults also showed enhanced proton leak, which was due to increased protein levels of uncoupling protein 2, and correlated with gate speed (r = 0.58; P = 0.0019). While no significant difference in glycolysis was observed in older compared to younger adults, platelet glycolytic rate correlated with fatigability (r = 0.44; P = 0.016).CONCLUSION These data advance the mechanistic understanding of age-related changes in mitochondrial function. Further, they suggest that measuring platelet bioenergetics provides a potential supplement or surrogate for muscle biopsy measurement and may be a valuable tool to study mitochondria in age-related decline of physical function.FUNDING NIH grants T32HL110849 and 1R01HL133003-01A1, NIH Career Development Award K01 AG044437, the Hemophilia Center of Western Pennsylvania, and University Pittsburgh Medical Center Stimulating Pittsburgh Research in Geroscience.
Andrea Braganza, Catherine G. Corey, Adam J. Santanasto, Giovanna Distefano, Paul M. Coen, Nancy W. Glynn, Seyed-Mehdi Nouraie, Bret H. Goodpaster, Anne B. Newman, Sruti Shiva
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2O (UBE2O) is expressed preferentially in metabolic tissues, but its role in regulating energy homeostasis has yet to be defined. Here we find that UBE2O is markedly upregulated in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes and show that whole-body disruption of Ube2o in mouse models in vivo results in improved metabolic profiles and resistance to high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) obesity and metabolic syndrome. With no difference in nutrient intake, Ube2o–/– mice were leaner and expended more energy than WT mice. In addition, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that Ube2o–/– mice were profoundly insulin sensitive. Through phenotype analysis of HFD mice with muscle-, fat-, or liver–specific knockout of Ube2o, we further identified UBE2O as an essential regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism programs in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose or liver tissue. Mechanistically, UBE2O acted as a ubiquitin ligase and targeted AMPKα2 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation in skeletal muscle; further, muscle-specific heterozygous knockout of Prkaa2 ablated UBE2O-controlled metabolic processes. These results identify the UBE2O/AMPKα2 axis as both a potent regulator of metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle and a therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disorders.
Isabelle K. Vila, Mi Kyung Park, Stephanie Rebecca Setijono, Yixin Yao, Hyejin Kim, Pierre-Marie Badin, Sekyu Choi, Vihang Narkar, Sung-Woo Choi, Jongkyeong Chung, Cedric Moro, Su Jung Song, Min Sup Song
Diabetic β cell failure is associated with β cell dedifferentiation. To identify effector genes of dedifferentiation, we integrated analyses of histone methylation as a surrogate of gene activation status and RNA expression in β cells sorted from mice with multiparity-induced diabetes. Interestingly, only a narrow subset of genes demonstrated concordant changes to histone methylation and RNA levels in dedifferentiating β cells. Notable among them was the α cell signature gene Gc, encoding a vitamin D–binding protein. Although diabetes was associated with Gc induction, Gc-deficient islets did not induce β cell dedifferentiation markers and maintained normal ex vivo insulin secretion in the face of metabolic challenge. Moreover, Gc-deficient mice exhibited a more robust insulin secretory response than normal controls during hyperglycemic clamp studies. The data are consistent with a functional role of Gc activation in β cell dysfunction and indicate that multiparity-induced diabetes is associated with altered β cell fate.
Taiyi Kuo, Manashree Damle, Bryan J. González, Dieter Egli, Mitchell A. Lazar, Domenico Accili
Kindlin-2 regulates integrin-mediated cell adhesion to and migration on the extracellular matrix. Our recent studies demonstrate important roles of kindlin-2 in regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and skeletal development. In this study, we generated adipose tissue–specific conditional knockout of kindlin-2 in mice by using Adipoq-Cre BAC–transgenic mice. The results showed that deleting kindlin-2 expression in adipocytes in mice caused a severe lipodystrophy with drastically reduced adipose tissue mass. Kindlin-2 ablation elevated the blood levels of nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides, resulting in massive fatty livers in the mutant mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Furthermore, HFD-fed mutant mice displayed type II diabetes–like phenotypes, including elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, glucose intolerance, and peripheral insulin resistance. Kindlin-2 loss dramatically reduced the expression levels of multiple key factors, including PPARγ, mTOR, AKT, and β-catenin proteins, and suppressed adipocyte gene expression and differentiation. Finally, kindlin-2 loss drastically reduced leptin production and caused a high bone mass phenotype. Collectively, these studies establish a critical role of kindlin-2 in control of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism as well as bone homeostasis.
Huanqing Gao, Yuxi Guo, Qinnan Yan, Wei Yang, Ruxuan Li, Simin Lin, Xiaochun Bai, Chuanju Liu, Di Chen, Huiling Cao, Guozhi Xiao
BACKGROUND Statins have pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism. The relationship between these effects and future cardiovascular events is unknown. We characterized the changes in lipids upon pravastatin treatment and defined the relationship with risk reduction for future cardiovascular events.METHODS Plasma lipids (n = 342) were measured in baseline and 1-year follow-up samples from a Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) study subcohort (n = 4991). The associations of changes in lipids with treatment and cardiovascular outcomes were investigated using linear and Cox regression. The effect of treatment on future cardiovascular outcomes was examined by the relative risk reduction (RRR).RESULTS Pravastatin treatment was associated with changes in 206 lipids. Species containing arachidonic acid were positively associated while phosphatidylinositol species were negatively associated with pravastatin treatment. The RRR from pravastatin treatment for cardiovascular events decreased from 23.5% to 16.6% after adjustment for clinical risk factors and change in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and to 3.0% after further adjustment for the change in the lipid ratio PI(36:2)/PC(38:4). Change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) mediated 58% of the treatment effect. Stratification of patients into quartiles of change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) indicated no benefit of pravastatin in the fourth quartile.CONCLUSION The change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) predicted benefit from pravastatin, independent of change in LDL-C, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker for monitoring the clinical benefit of statin treatment in secondary prevention.TRIAL REGISTRATION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry identifier ACTRN12616000535471.FUNDING Bristol-Myers Squibb; NHMRC grants 211086, 358395, and 1029754; NHMRC program grant 1149987; NHMRC fellowship 108026; and the Operational Infrastructure Support Program of the Victorian government of Australia.
Kaushala S. Jayawardana, Piyushkumar A. Mundra, Corey Giles, Christopher K. Barlow, Paul J. Nestel, Elizabeth H. Barnes, Adrienne Kirby, Peter Thompson, David R. Sullivan, Zahir H. Alshehry, Natalie A. Mellett, Kevin Huynh, Malcolm J. McConville, Sophia Zoungas, Graham S. Hillis, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Ian C. Marschner, Gerard Wong, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, John Simes, Andrew M. Tonkin, Peter J. Meikle, on behalf of the LIPID Study Investigators
The mechanisms regulating translation and splicing are not well understood. We provide insight into a new regulator of translation, 2-oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenase domain–containing protein 1 (OGFOD1), which is a prolyl-hydroxylase that catalyzes the posttranslational hydroxylation of Pro62 in the small ribosomal protein S23. We show that deletion of OGFOD1 in an in vitro model of human cardiomyocytes decreases translation of specific proteins (e.g., RNA-binding proteins) and alters splicing. RNA-Seq showed poor correlation between changes in mRNA and protein synthesis, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation was the primary cause for the observed differences. We found that loss of OGFOD1 and the resultant alterations in protein translation modulated the cardiac proteome, shifting it toward higher protein amounts of sarcomeric proteins, such as cardiac troponins, titin, and cardiac myosin-binding protein C. Furthermore, we found a decrease of OGFOD1 during cardiomyocyte differentiation. These results suggest that loss of OGFOD1 modulates protein translation and splicing, thereby leading to alterations in the cardiac proteome, and highlight the role of altered translation and splicing in regulating the proteome.
Andrea Stoehr, Leslie Kennedy, Yanqin Yang, Sajni Patel, Yongshun Lin, Kaari L. Linask, Maria Fergusson, Jun Zhu, Marjan Gucek, Jizhong Zou, Elizabeth Murphy
Cancer development is influenced by hereditary mutations, somatic mutations due to random errors in DNA replication, or external factors. It remains unclear how distinct cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors affect oncogenesis within the same tissue type. We investigated murine soft-tissue sarcomas generated by oncogenic alterations (KrasG12D activation and p53 deletion), carcinogens (3-methylcholanthrene [MCA] or ionizing radiation), and both factors in a potentially novel model (MCA plus p53 deletion). Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated distinct mutational signatures in individual sarcoma cohorts. MCA-induced sarcomas exhibited high mutational burden and predominantly G-to-T transversions, while radiation-induced sarcomas exhibited low mutational burden and a distinct genetic signature characterized by C-to-T transitions. The insertion-deletion/substitution ratio and number of gene copy number variations were high for radiation-induced sarcomas. MCA-induced tumors generated on a p53-deficient background showed the highest genomic instability. MCA-induced sarcomas harbored mutations in putative cancer driver genes that regulate MAPK signaling (Kras and Nf1) and the Hippo pathway (Fat1 and Fat4). In contrast, radiation-induced sarcomas and KrasG12D p53–/– sarcomas did not harbor recurrent oncogenic mutations; rather, they exhibited amplifications of specific oncogenes: Kras and Myc in KrasG12D p53–/– sarcomas and Met and Yap1 for radiation-induced sarcomas. These results reveal that different initiating events drive oncogenesis through distinct mechanisms.
Chang-Lung Lee, Yvonne M. Mowery, Andrea R. Daniel, Dadong Zhang, Alexander B. Sibley, Joe R. Delaney, Amy J. Wisdom, Xiaodi Qin, Xi Wang, Isibel Caraballo, Jeremy Gresham, Lixia Luo, David Van Mater, Kouros Owzar, David G. Kirsch
BACKGROUND Little is known about the genomic differences between metastatic lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC) and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). We compare genomic features of primary and metastatic UTUC and LTUC tumors in a cohort of patients with end-stage disease.METHODS We performed whole-exome sequencing on matched primary and metastatic tumor samples (n = 37) collected via rapid autopsy of 7 patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Inter- and intrapatient mutational burden, mutational signatures, predicted deleterious mutations, and somatic copy number variations (sCNVs) were analyzed.RESULTS We investigated 3 patients with UTUC (3 primary samples, 13 metastases) and 4 patients with LTUC (4 primary samples, 17 metastases). We found that somatic single-nucleotide variant (sSNV) burden was higher in metastatic LTUC compared with UTUC. Moreover, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC), mutational signature was pervasive in metastatic LTUC and less so in UTUC. Despite a lower overall sSNV burden, UTUC displayed greater inter- and intra-individual genomic distances at the copy number level between primary and metastatic tumors than LTUC. Our data also indicate that metastatic UTUC lesions can arise from small clonal populations present in the primary cancer. Importantly, putative druggable mutations were found across patients with the majority shared across all metastases within a patient.CONCLUSIONS UTUC demonstrated a lower overall mutational burden but greater structural variability compared with LTUC. Our findings suggest that metastatic UTUC displays a greater spectrum of copy number divergence from LTUC. Importantly, we identified druggable lesions shared across metastatic samples, which demonstrate a level of targetable homogeneity within individual patients.FUNDING NIH, Seattle Translation Tumor Research Program in Bladder Cancer, Howard J. Cohen Bladder Cancer Foundation, Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute, Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program, American Association for Cancer Research, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, David Matthews, and the Stinchcomb Memorial Funds.
Brian R. Winters, Navonil De Sarkar, Sonali Arora, Hamid Bolouri, Sujata Jana, Funda Vakar-Lopez, Heather H. Cheng, Michael T. Schweizer, Evan Y. Yu, Petros Grivas, John K. Lee, Lori Kollath, Sarah K. Holt, Lisa McFerrin, Gavin Ha, Peter S. Nelson, Robert B. Montgomery, Jonathan L. Wright, Hung-Ming Lam, Andrew C. Hsieh
BACKGROUND Black individuals have lower natriuretic peptide levels and greater risk of heart failure (HF) than White individuals. Higher N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is associated with increased risk of incident HF, but little information is available in Black individuals. We examined race-specific differences in (a) the association of NT-proBNP with incident HF and (b) the predictive ability of NT-proBNP for incident HF across BMI and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories.METHODS In a prospective case-cohort study, baseline NT-proBNP was measured among 687 participants with incident HF and 2923 (weighted 20,075) non-case randomly selected participants. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to assess the objectives of our study. Global Wald χ2 score estimated from multivariable Cox models was used to assess predictive ability of NT-proBNP across BMI and eGFR categories.RESULTS In the multivariable model, a doubling of NT-proBNP concentration was associated with greater risk of incident HF among White individuals (HR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.55–1.94) than Black individuals (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.34–1.70), with Pinteraction by race of 0.024. Higher NT-proBNP was the strongest predictor of incident HF across all BMI and eGFR categories among White individuals. In contrast, among Black individuals with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) or eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the predictive ability of NT-proBNP for incident HF was attenuated.CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of the association of higher NT-proBNP with incident HF risk was greater among White individuals than Black individuals. The diminished ability of NT-proBNP to predict the risk of HF in the Black population with obesity or impaired kidney function highlights the need for further investigations.FUNDING National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Institute on Aging; and the NIH.
Nirav Patel, Mary Cushman, Orlando M. Gutiérrez, George Howard, Monika M. Safford, Paul Muntner, Raegan W. Durant, Sumanth D. Prabhu, Garima Arora, Emily B. Levitan, Pankaj Arora
The ang1-tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2 (Tie2) pathway is required for normal vascular development, but its molecular effectors are not well-defined during cardiac ontogeny. Here, we show that endocardial-specific attenuation of Tie2 results in midgestation lethality due to heart defects associated with a hyperplastic but simplified trabecular meshwork (fewer but thicker trabeculae). Reduced proliferation and production of endocardial cells following endocardial loss of Tie2 results in decreased endocardial sprouting required for trabecular assembly and extension. The hyperplastic trabeculae result from enhanced proliferation of trabecular cardiomyocytes, which is associated with upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 10, increased retinoic acid (RA) signaling, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 hyperphosphorylation in the myocardium. Intriguingly, myocardial phenotypes in conditional knockout hearts could be partially rescued by inhibiting in utero RA signaling with pan-RA receptor antagonist BMS493. These findings reveal 2 complementary functions of endocardial Tie2 during ventricular chamber formation: ensuring normal trabeculation by supporting endocardial cell proliferation and sprouting and preventing hypertrabeculation via suppression of RA signaling in trabecular cardiomyocytes.
Xianghu Qu, Cristina Harmelink, H. Scott Baldwin
Recombinant adeno-associated virus–mediated (rAAV-mediated) gene delivery can efficiently target muscle tissues to serve as “biofactories” for secreted proteins in prophylactic and therapeutic scenarios. Nevertheless, efficient rAAV-mediated gene delivery is often limited by host immune responses against the transgene product. The development of strategies to prevent antitransgene immunity is therefore crucial. The use of endogenous microRNA-mediated (miRNA-mediated) regulation to detarget transgene expression from antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has shown promise for reducing immunogenicity. However, the mechanisms underlying miRNA-mediated modulation of antitransgene immunity by APC detargeting are not fully understood. Using the highly immunogenic ovalbumin (OVA) protein as a proxy for foreign antigens, we show that rAAV vectors containing miR142-binding sites efficiently repress costimulatory signals in DCs, significantly blunt the cytotoxic T cell response, allow for sustained transgene expression in skeletal myoblasts, and attenuate clearance of transduced muscle cells in mice. Furthermore, the blunting of humoral immunity against circulating OVA correlates with detargeting of OVA expression from APCs. This demonstrates that incorporating APC-specific miRNA-binding sites into rAAV vectors provides an effective strategy for reducing transgene-specific immune response. This approach holds promise for clinical applications where the safe and efficient delivery of a prophylactic or therapeutic protein is desired.
Yuanyuan Xiao, Manish Muhuri, Shaoyong Li, Wanru Qin, Guangchao Xu, Li Luo, Jia Li, Alexander J. Letizia, Sean K. Wang, Ying Kai Chan, Chunmei Wang, Sebastian P. Fuchs, Dan Wang, Qin Su, M. Abu Nahid, George M. Church, Michael Farzan, Li Yang, Yuquan Wei, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Christian Mueller, Phillip W.L. Tai, Guangping Gao
Excess dietary salt contributes to inflammation and hypertension via poorly understood mechanisms. Antigen-presenting cells including DCs play a key role in regulating intestinal immune homeostasis in part by surveying the gut epithelial surface for pathogens. Previously, we found that highly reactive γ-ketoaldehydes or isolevuglandins (IsoLGs) accumulate in DCs and act as neoantigens, promoting an autoimmune-like state and hypertension. We hypothesized that excess dietary salt alters the gut microbiome leading to hypertension and this is associated with increased immunogenic IsoLG adduct formation in myeloid antigen-presenting cells. To test this hypothesis, we performed fecal microbiome analysis and measured blood pressure of healthy human volunteers with salt intake above or below the American Heart Association recommendations. We also performed 16S rRNA analysis on cecal samples of mice fed normal or high-salt diets. In humans and mice, high-salt intake was associated with changes in the gut microbiome reflecting an increase in Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and genus Prevotella bacteria. These alterations were associated with higher blood pressure in humans and predisposed mice to vascular inflammation and hypertension in response to a subpressor dose of angiotensin II. Mice fed a high-salt diet exhibited increased intestinal inflammation, including the mesenteric arterial arcade and aorta, with a marked increase in the B7 ligand CD86 and formation of IsoLG protein adducts in CD11c+ myeloid cells. Adoptive transfer of fecal material from conventionally housed high-salt diet–fed mice to germ-free mice predisposed them to increased inflammation and hypertension. These findings provide potentially novel insights into the mechanisms underlying inflammation and hypertension associated with excess dietary salt and may lead to interventions targeting the microbiome to prevent and treat this important disease.
Jane F. Ferguson, Luul A. Aden, Natalia R. Barbaro, Justin P. Van Beusecum, Liang Xiao, Alan J. Simmons, Cassandra Warden, Lejla Pasic, Lauren E. Himmel, Mary K. Washington, Frank L. Revetta, Shilin Zhao, Shivani Kumaresan, Matthew B. Scholz, Zhengzheng Tang, Guanhua Chen, Muredach P. Reilly, Annet Kirabo
Alteration of innate immune cells in the lungs can promote loss of peripheral tolerance that leads to autoimmune responses in cigarette smokers. Development of autoimmunity in smokers with emphysema is also strongly linked to the expansion of autoreactive T helper (Th) cells expressing interferon γ (Th1), and interleukin 17A (Th17). However, the mechanisms responsible for enhanced self-recognition and reduced immune tolerance in smokers with emphysema remain less clear. Here we show that C1q, a component of the complement protein 1 complex (C1), is downregulated in lung CD1a+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) isolated from emphysematous human and mouse lung APCs after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. C1q potentiated the function of APCs to differentiate CD4+ T cells to regulatory T cells (Tregs), while it inhibited Th17 cell induction and proliferation. Mice deficient in C1q that were exposed to chronic smoke exhibited exaggerated lung inflammation marked by increased Th17 cells, whereas reconstitution of C1q in the lungs enhanced Treg abundance, dampened smoke-induced lung inflammation, and prevented the development of emphysema. Our findings demonstrate that cigarette smoke–mediated loss of C1q could play a key role in reduced peripheral tolerance, which could be explored to treat emphysema.
Xiaoyi Yuan, Cheng-Yen Chang, Ran You, Ming Shan, Bon Hee Gu, Matthew C. Madison, Gretchen Diehl, Sarah Perusich, Li-Zhen Song, Lorraine Cornwell, Roger D. Rossen, Rick Wetsel, Rajapakshe Kimal, Cristian Coarfa, Holger K. Eltzschig, David B. Corry, Farrah Kheradmand
Tuberculosis patients and mice infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis accumulate high numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Here, we hypothesized that dead M. tuberculosis vaccines also may induce MDSCs that could impair the efficacy of vaccination. We found that repeated injections of M. tuberculosis vaccines (heat-killed M. tuberculosis in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, such as Montanide) but not single or control vaccines without M. tuberculosis strongly expanded CD11b+ myeloid cells in the spleen, leading to T cell suppression of proliferation and killing ex vivo. Dead M. tuberculosis vaccination induced the generation of CD11b+Ly6ChiCD115+ iNOS/Nos2+ monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) upon application of inflammatory or microbial activation signals. In vivo these M-MDSCs were positioned strategically in the splenic bridging channels and then positioned in the white pulp areas. Notably, within 6–24 hours, in a Nos2-dependent fashion, they produced NO to rapidly kill conventional and plasmacytoid DCs while, surprisingly, sparing T cells in vivo. Thus, we demonstrate that M. tuberculosis vaccine induced M-MDSCs do not directly suppress effector T cells in vivo but, instead, indirectly by killing DCs. Collectively, we demonstrate that M. tuberculosis booster vaccines induce M-MDSCs in the spleen that can be activated to kill DCs. Our data suggest that formation of MDSCs by M. tuberculosis vaccines should be investigated also in clinical trials.
Eliana Ribechini, Ina Eckert, Andreas Beilhack, Nelita Du Plessis, Gerhard Walzl, Ulrike Schleicher, Uwe Ritter, Manfred B. Lutz