Diabetic β cell failure is associated with β cell dedifferentiation. To identify effector genes of dedifferentiation, we integrated analyses of histone methylation as a surrogate of gene activation status and RNA expression in β cells sorted from mice with multiparity-induced diabetes. Interestingly, only a narrow subset of genes demonstrated concordant changes to histone methylation and RNA levels in dedifferentiating β cells. Notable among them was the α cell signature gene Gc, encoding a vitamin D-binding protein. While diabetes was associated with Gc induction, Gc-deficient islets did not induce β cell dedifferentiation markers and maintained normal ex vivo insulin secretion in the face of metabolic challenge. Moreover, Gc-deficient mice exhibited a more robust insulin secretory response than normal controls during hyperglycemic clamps. The data are consistent with a functional role of Gc activation in β cell dysfunction, and indicate that multiparity-induced diabetes is associated with altered β cell fate.
Taiyi Kuo, Manashree Damle, Bryan J. González, Dietrich Egli, Mitchell A. Lazar, Domenico Accili
Many cytokines and chemokines that are important for hematopoiesis activate the PI3K signaling pathway. Because this pathway is frequently mutated and activated in cancer, PI3K inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of several malignancies, and are now being tested in the clinic in combination with chemotherapy. However, the role of PI3K in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), particularly during hematopoietic stress, is still unclear. We previously showed that the individual PI3K catalytic isoforms P110α or P110β have dispensable roles in HSC function, suggesting redundancy between PI3K isoforms in HSCs. We now demonstrate that simultaneous deletion of P110α and P110δ in double knockout (DKO) HSCs uncovers their redundant requirement in HSC cycling after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy administration. In contrast, DKO HSCs are still able to exit quiescence in response to other stress stimuli, such as LPS. We found that DKO HSCs and progenitors have impaired sensing of inflammatory signals ex vivo, and that levels of IL1-β and MIG are higher in the bone marrow after LPS than after 5-FU administration. Furthermore, exogenous in vivo administration of IL1-β can induce cell cycle entry of DKO HSCs. Our findings have important clinical implications for the use of PI3K inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy.
Shayda Hemmati, Taneisha Sinclair, Meng Tong, Boris Bartholdy, Rachel O. Okabe, Kristina Ames, Leanne Ostrodka, Tamanna Haque, Imit Kaur, Taylor S. Mills, Anupriya Agarwal, Eric M. Pietras, Jean J. Zhao, Thomas M. Roberts, Kira Gritsman
Cancer development is influenced by hereditary mutations, somatic mutations due to random errors in DNA replication, or external factors. It remains unclear how distinct cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors impact oncogenesis within the same tissue type. We investigated murine soft tissue sarcomas generated by oncogenic alterations (KrasG12D activation and p53 deletion), carcinogens (3-methylcholanthrene [MCA] or ionizing radiation), and in a novel model combining both factors (MCA plus p53 deletion). Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated distinct mutational signatures in individual sarcoma cohorts. MCA-induced sarcomas exhibited high mutational burden and predominantly G-to-T transversions, while radiation-induced sarcomas exhibited low mutational burden and a distinct genetic signature characterized by C-to-T transitions. The indel to substitution ratio and amount of gene copy number variations were high for radiation-induced sarcomas. MCA-induced tumors generated on a p53-deficient background showed the highest genomic instability. MCA-induced sarcomas harbored mutations in putative cancer-driver genes that regulate MAPK signaling (Kras and Nf1) and the Hippo pathway (Fat1 and Fat4). In contrast, radiation-induced sarcomas and KrasG12Dp53–/– sarcomas did not harbor recurrent oncogenic mutations, rather they exhibited amplifications of specific oncogenes: Kras and Myc in KrasG12Dp53–/– sarcomas, and Met and Yap1 for radiation-induced sarcomas. These results reveal that different initiating events drive oncogenesis through distinct mechanisms.
Chang-Lung Lee, Yvonne M. Mowery, Andrea R. Daniel, Dadong Zhang, Alexander B. Sibley, Joe R. Delaney, Amy J. Wisdom, Xiaodi Qin, Xi Wang, Isibel Caraballo, Jeremy Gresham, Lixia Luo, David Van Mater, Kouros Owzar, David G. Kirsch
The ang1-Tie2 pathway is required for normal vascular development, but its molecular effectors are not well-defined during cardiac ontogeny. Here we show that endocardial specific attenuation of Tie2 results in mid-gestation lethality due to heart defects associated with a hyperplastic but simplified trabecular meshwork (fewer but thicker trabeculae). Reduced proliferation and production of endocardial cells (ECs) following endocardial loss of Tie2 results in decreased endocardial sprouting required for trabecular assembly and extension. The hyperplastic trabeculae result from enhanced proliferation of trabecular cardiomyocyte (CMs), which is associated with upregulation of Bmp10, increased retinoic acid (RA) signaling, and Erk1/2 hyperphosphorylation in the myocardium. Intriguingly, myocardial phenotypes in Tie2-cko hearts could be partially rescued by inhibiting in utero RA signaling with pan-retinoic acid receptor antagonist BMS493. These findings reveal two complimentary functions of endocardial Tie2 during ventricular chamber formation: ensuring normal trabeculation by supporting EC proliferation and sprouting, and preventing hypertrabeculation via suppression of RA signaling in trabecular CMs.
Xianghu Qu, Cristina Harmelink, H. Scott Baldwin
Alteration of innate immune cells in the lungs can promote loss of peripheral tolerance that leads to autoimmune responses in cigarette smokers. Development of autoimmunity in smokers with emphysema is also strongly linked to the expansion of autoreactive T helper (Th) cells expressing interferon gamma (Th1), and interleukin 17A (Th17). However, the mechanisms responsible for enhanced self-recognition and reduced immune tolerance in smoker with emphysema remain less clear. Here we show that C1q, a component of the complement protein 1 complex (C1), is downregulated in lung CD1a+ antigen presenting cells (APCs) isolated from emphysematous human, and mouse lung APCs after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. C1q potentiated the function of APCs to differentiate CD4+ T cells to Tregs, while it inhibited Th17 cell development and proliferation. Mice deficient in C1q that were exposed to chronic smoke exhibited exaggerated lung inflammation marked by increased Th17 cells, while reconstitution of C1q in the lungs enhanced Tregs abundance, dampened smoke-induced lung inflammation, and reversed established emphysema. Our findings demonstrate that cigarette smoke-mediated loss of C1q could play a key role in reduced peripheral tolerance, which could be explored to treat emphysema.
Xiaoyi Yuan, Cheng-Yen Chang, Ran You, Ming Shan, Bon Hee Gu, Matthew Madison, Gretchen Diehl, Sarah Perusich, Li-Zhen Song, Lorraine Cornwell, Roger D. Rossen, Rick Wetsel, Rajapakshe Kimal, Cristian Coarfa, Holger Eltzschig, David B. Corry, Farrah Kheradmand
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery can efficiently target muscle tissues to serve as “biofactories” for secreted proteins in prophylactic and therapeutic scenarios. Nevertheless, efficient rAAV-mediated gene delivery is often limited by host immune responses against the transgene product. The development of strategies to prevent anti-transgene immunity is therefore crucial. The employment of endogenous microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation to detarget transgene expression from antigen presenting cells (APCs) has shown promise for reducing immunogenicity. However, the mechanisms underlying miRNA-mediated modulation of anti-transgene immunity by APC detargeting are not fully understood. Using the highly immunogenic ovalbumin (OVA) protein as a proxy for foreign antigens, we show that rAAV vectors containing miR142 binding sites efficiently repress co-stimulatory signals in dendritic cells, significantly blunt the cytotoxic T cell response, allow for sustained transgene expression in skeletal myoblasts, and attenuate clearance of transduced muscle cells in mice. Furthermore, the blunting of humoral immunity against circulating OVA correlates with detargeting of OVA expression from APCs. This demonstrates that incorporating APC-specific miRNA binding sites into rAAV vectors provides an effective strategy for reducing transgene-specific immune response. This approach holds promise for clinical applications where the safe and efficient delivery of a prophylactic or therapeutic protein is desired.
Yuanyuan Xiao, Manish Muhuri, Shaoyong Li, Wanru Qin, Guangchao Xu, Li Luo, Jia Li, Alexander J. Letizia, Sean K. Wang, Ying Kai Chan, Chunmei Wang, Sebastian P. Fuchs, Dan Wang, Qin Su, M. Abu Nahid, George M. Church, Michael Farzan, Li Yang, Yuquan Wei, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Christian Mueller, Phillip W.L. Tai, Guangping Gao
The mechanisms regulating translation and splicing are not well understood. We provide insight into a new regulator of translation, OGFOD1 (2-oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1), which is a prolyl-hydroxylase that catalyzes the posttranslational hydroxylation of Pro-62 in the small ribosomal protein S23. We show that deletion of OGFOD1 in an in vitro model of human cardiomyocytes decreases translation of specific proteins (e.g., RNA-binding proteins) and alters splicing. RNA sequencing showed poor correlation between changes in mRNA and protein synthesis, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation was the primary cause for the observed differences. We found that loss of OGFOD1 and the resultant alterations in protein translation modulates the cardiac proteome, shifting it towards higher protein amounts of sarcomeric proteins such as cardiac troponins, titin and cardiac myosin binding protein C. Furthermore, we found a decrease of OGFOD1 during cardiomyocyte differentiation. These results suggest that loss of OGFOD1 modulates protein translation and splicing, thereby leading to alterations in the cardiac proteome and highlight the role of altered translation and splicing in regulating the proteome..
Andrea Stoehr, Leslie Kennedy, Yanqin Yang, Sajni Patel, Yongshun Lin, Kaari L. Linask, Maria M. Fergusson, Jun Zhu, Marjan Gucek, Jizhong Zou, Elizabeth Murphy
Susceptibility to chronic beryllium (Be) disease is linked to HLA-DP molecules possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the β-chain (βGlu69), with the most prevalent βGlu69-containing molecule being HLA-DP2. We have previously shown that HLA-DP2 transgenic (Tg) mice exposed to Be oxide (BeO) develop mononuclear infiltrates in a peribronchovascular distribution and a beryllium-specific, HLA-DP2-restricted CD4+ T cell response. In addition to T cells, B cells constituted a major portion of infiltrated leukocytes in the lung of BeO-exposed HLA-DP2 Tg mice and sequester BeO particles within ectopic lymphoid aggregates and granulomas. B cell depletion was associated with a loss of lymphoid aggregates and granulomas as well as a significant increase in lung injury in BeO-exposed mice. The protective role of B cells was innate in origin, and BeO-induced B cell recruitment to the lung was dependent on MyD88 signaling. Similar to BeO-exposed HLA-DP2 mice, B cells also accumulate in the lungs of CBD subjects, located at the periphery and surrounding the granuloma. Overall, our data suggest a novel modulatory role for B cells in the protection of the lung against sterile particulate exposure, with B cell recruitment to the inflamed lung occurring in an antigen-independent and MyD88-dependent manner.
Shaikh M. Atif, Douglas G. Mack, Amy S. McKee, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Allison K. Martin, Andrew Getahun, Lisa A. Maier, John C. Cambier, Rubin Tuder, Andrew P. Fontenot
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Current treatments target prostate physiology rather than BPH pathophysiology and are only partially effective. Here, we applied next-generation sequencing to gain new insight into BPH. By RNAseq, we uncovered transcriptional heterogeneity among BPH cases, where a 65-gene BPH stromal signature correlated with symptom severity. Stromal signaling molecules BMP5 and CXCL13 were enriched in BPH while estrogen regulated pathways were depleted. Notably, BMP5 addition to cultured prostatic myofibroblasts altered their expression profile towards a BPH profile that included the BPH stromal signature. RNAseq also suggested an altered cellular milieu in BPH, which we verified by immunohistochemistry and single-cell RNAseq. In particular, BPH tissues exhibited enrichment of myofibroblast subsets, whilst depletion of neuroendocrine cells and an estrogen receptor (ESR1)-positive fibroblast cell type residing near epithelium. By whole-exome sequencing, we uncovered somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in BPH, of uncertain pathogenic significance but indicative of clonal cell expansions. Thus, genomic characterization of BPH has identified a clinically-relevant stromal signature and new candidate disease pathways (including a likely role for BMP5 signaling), and reveals BPH to be not merely a hyperplasia, but rather a fundamental re-landscaping of cell types.
Lance W. Middleton, Zhewei Shen, Sushama Varma, Anna S. Pollack, Xue Gong, Shirley Zhu, Chunfang Zhu, Joseph W. Foley, Sujay Vennam, Robert T. Sweeney, Karen Tu, Jewison Biscocho, Okyaz Eminaga, Rosalie Nolley, Robert Tibshirani, James D. Brooks, Robert B. West, Jonathan R. Pollack
Pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease characterized by accumulation of activated fibroblasts and scarring in the lung. While fibroblast activation in physiological wound repair reverses spontaneously, fibroblast activation in fibrosis is aberrantly sustained. Here we identified histone 3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) as a critical epigenetic modification that sustains fibroblast activation by repressing the transcription of genes essential to returning lung fibroblasts to an inactive state. We show that the histone methyltransferase G9a (EHMT2) and chromobox homolog 5 (CBX5, also known as HP1α), which deposit H3K9me marks and assemble an associated repressor complex respectively, are essential to initiation and maintenance of fibroblast activation specifically through epigenetic repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha gene (PPARGC1A, encoding PGC1α). Both TGFβ and increased matrix stiffness potently inhibit PGC1α expression in lung fibroblasts through engagement of the CBX5/G9a pathway. Inhibition of CBX5/G9a pathway in fibroblasts elevates PGC1α, attenuates TGFβ- and matrix stiffness-promoted H3K9 methylation, and reduces collagen accumulation in the lungs following bleomycin injury. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic silencing mediated by H3K9 methylation is essential for both biochemical and biomechanical fibroblast activation, and that targeting this epigenetic pathway may provide therapeutic benefit by returning lung fibroblasts to quiescence.
Giovanni Ligresti, Nunzia Caporarello, Jeffrey A. Meridew, Dakota L. Jones, Qi Tan, Kyoung Moo Choi, Andrew J. Haak, Aja Aravamudhan, Anja C. Roden, Y. S. Prakash, Gwen Lomberk, Raul A. Urrutia, Daniel J. Tschumperlin
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