In this work, we have explored natural unmodified low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL) as selective delivery vectors in colorectal cancer therapy. We show in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo (NanoSPECT/CT) in the CT-26 mice colorectal cancer model that LDLs are mainly taken up by cancer cells, while HDLs are preferentially taken up by macrophages. We loaded LDLs with cisplatin and HDLs with the heat shock protein-70 inhibitor AC1LINNC, turning them into a pair of “Trojan horses” delivering drugs selectively to their target cells as demonstrated in vitro in human colorectal cancer cells and macrophages, and in vivo. Coupling of the drugs to lipoproteins and stability was assessed by mass and raman spectrometry analysis. Cisplatin vectorized in LDLs led to better tumor growth suppression with strongly reduced adverse effects such as a renal or liver toxicity. AC1LINNC vectorized into HDLs induced a strong oxidative burst in macrophages and innate anti-cancer immune response. Cumulative anti-tumor effect was observed for both drug-loaded lipoproteins. Altogether, our data show that lipoproteins from patient’s blood can be used as natural nanocarriers allowing cell specific targeting, paving the way toward more efficient, safer and personalized use of chemo-and immunotherapeutic drugs in cancer.
Tarik Hadi, Christophe Ramseyer, Thomas Gautier, Pierre-Simon Bellaye, Tatiana Lopez, Antonin Schmitt, Foley Sarah, Semen Yesylevskyy, Thibault Minervini, Romain Douhard, Lucile Dondaine, Lil Proukhnitzky, Samir Messaoudi, Maeva Wendremaire, Mathieu Moreau, Fabrice Neiers, Bertrand Collin, Franck Denat, Laurent Lagrost, Carmen Garrido, Frederic Lirussi
Adoptive cell therapy involves the infusion of tumor-reactive T cells into patients with cancer to provide antitumor immunity. The ex vivo expansion and differentiation of such T cells are key parameters that affect their therapeutic potential. Human T cells are presently expanded in culture through the use of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs immobilized on beads, expressed on cells, or assembled in the context of soluble antibody complexes. Here we report the design of a small, bispecific single-chain variable fragment construct agonizing both CD3 and CD28 pathways. This soluble T cell expansion protein, termed T-CEP, activates, expands, and differentiates human T cells ex vivo at concentrations in the femtomolar range. Importantly, T-CEP promotes the preferential growth of human CD8+ T cells over the course of 12 days in comparison with methods involving immobilized anti-CD3 mAb/soluble anti-CD28 mAb or soluble anti-CD3/CD28 mAb complexes. The differentiation profile of the resulting human T cell population is also singularly affected by T-CEP, favoring the expansion of a preferred CD8+CD27+ T cell phenotype. The activity profile of T-CEP on human T cells ex vivo suggests its use in generating human T cell populations that are more suited for adoptive cell therapy.
Esther I. Matus, Amanda Sparkes, Jean Gariépy
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for solid tumors has shown limited efficacy in early-phase clinical studies. The majority of CARs encode CD28 and/or 41BB costimulatory endodomains, and we explored whether MyD88 and CD40 (MC) costimulatory endodomains in CARs could improve their antitumor activity. We generated CD28-, 41BB-, and MC-CAR T cells and demonstrated that MC-CAR T cells have greater proliferative capacity and antitumor activity in repeat stimulation assays and in tumor models in vivo. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that MC-CAR T cells expressed higher levels of MYB and FOXM1, key cell cycle regulators, and were activated at baseline. After stimulation, MC-CAR T cells remained in a less differentiated state than CD28- and 41BB-CAR T cells as judged by low levels of transcription factor TBET and B lymphocyte induced maturation protein 1 expression and lower cytolytic activity in comparison with CD28- and 41BB-CAR T cells. Thus, including MyD88 and CD40 signaling domains in CARs may improve current CAR T cell therapy approaches for solid tumors.
Brooke Prinzing, Patrick Schreiner, Matthew Bell, Yiping Fan, Giedre Krenciute, Stephen Gottschalk
We remain largely without effective prophylactic/therapeutic interventions for COVID-19. Although many human COVID-19 clinical trials are ongoing, there remains a deficiency of supportive preclinical drug efficacy studies to help guide decisions. Here we assessed the prophylactic/therapeutic efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a drug of interest for COVID-19 management, in two animal disease models. The standard human malaria HCQ prophylaxis (6.5 mg/kg given weekly) and treatment (6.5 mg/kg) did not significantly benefit clinical outcome nor reduce SARS-CoV-2 replication/shedding in the upper and lower respiratory tract in the rhesus macaque disease model. Similarly, when used for prophylaxis or treatment neither the standard human malaria dose (6.5 mg/kg) nor a high dose (50 mg/kg) of HCQ had any beneficial effect on clinical disease or SARS-CoV-2 kinetics (replication/shedding) in the Syrian hamster disease model. Results from these two preclinical animal models may prove helpful in guiding clinical use of HCQ for prophylaxis/treatment of COVID-19.
Kyle Rosenke, Michael A. Jarvis, Friederike Feldmann, Benjamin Schwarz, Atsushi Okumura, Jamie Lovaglio, Greg Saturday, Patrick W. Hanley, Kimberly Meade-White, Brandi N. Williamson, Frederick A. Hansen, Lizette Pérez-Pérez, Shanna Leventhal, Tsing-Lee Tang-Huau, Julie Callison, Elaine Haddock, Kaitlin A. Stromberg, Graham Sewell, Dana Scott, Catharine M. Bosio, David W. Hawman, Emmie de Wit, Heinz Feldmann
Infections caused by multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, especially MRSA, are responsible for high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Resistant lineages were previously confined to hospitals, but are now also causing infections among healthy individuals in the community. It is therefore imperative to explore therapeutic avenues that are less prone to raise drug resistance compared to today’s antibiotics. An opportunity to achieve this ambitious goal could be provided by targeted antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), which relies on the combination of a bacteria-specific targeting agent and light-induced generation of reactive oxygen species by an appropriate photosensitizer. Here we conjugated the near-infrared photosensitizer IRDye700DX to a fully human monoclonal antibody, specific for the invariantly expressed staphylococcal antigen IsaA. The resulting immunoconjugate 1D9-700DX was characterized biochemically and in preclinical infection models. As demonstrated in vitro, in vivo, and in a human post-mortem orthopedic implant infection model, targeted aPDT with 1D9-700DX is highly effective. Importantly, combined with the non-toxic aPDT-enhancing agent potassium iodide, 1D9-700DX overcomes the antioxidant properties of human plasma and fully eradicates high titers of MRSA. We show that the developed immunoconjugate 1D9-700DX targets MRSA and kills it upon illumination with red light, without causing collateral damage to human cells.
Mafalda Bispo, Andrea Anaya-Sanchez, Sabrina Suhani, Elisa J.M. Raineri, Marina López-Álvarez, Marjolein Heuker, Wiktor Szymański, Francisco Romero Pastrana, Girbe Buist, Alexander R. Horswill, Kevin P. Francis, Gooitzen M. van Dam, Marleen van Oosten, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and FrontoTemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD), two incurable neurodegenerative disorders, share the same pathological hallmark named TDP43 (TAR DNA binding protein 43) proteinopathy. This event is characterized by a consistent cytoplasmic mislocalization and aggregation of the protein TDP43 which loses its physiological properties leading neurons to death. Antibody-based approaches are now emerging interventions in the field of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we tested the target specificity, in vivo distribution and therapeutic efficacy of a monoclonal full-length antibody, named E6, in TDP43 related conditions. We observed that the antibody recognizes specifically the cytoplasmic fraction of TDP43. We demonstrated its ability in targeting large neurons in the spinal cord of mice and in reducing TDP43 mislocalization and NF-B activation. We also recognized the proteasome as well as the lysosome machineries as possible mechanisms used by the antibody to reduce TDP43 proteinopathy. To our knowledge this is the first report showing the therapeutic efficacy and feasibility of a full-length antibody against TDP43 in reducing TDP43 proteinopathy in spinal neurons of an ALS/FTLD mouse model.
Silvia Pozzi, Philippe Codron, Genevieve Soucy, Laurence Renaud, Pierre Cordeau, Kallol Dutta, Christine Bareil, Jean-Pierre Julien
Pre-existing humoral immunity to recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors restricts the treatable patient population and efficacy of human gene therapies. Approaches to clear neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), such as plasmapheresis and immunosuppression are either ineffective or cause undesirable side effects. Here, we describe a clinically relevant strategy to rapidly and transiently degrade NAbs prior to AAV administration using an IgG degrading enzyme (IdeZ). We demonstrate that recombinant IdeZ efficiently cleaves IgG in dog, monkey and human antisera. Prophylactically administered IdeZ cleaves circulating, human IgG in mice and prevents AAV neutralization in vivo. In macaques, a single intravenous dose of IdeZ rescues AAV transduction by transiently reversing seropositivity. Importantly, IdeZ efficiently cleaves NAbs and rescues AAV transduction in mice passively immunized with individual human donor sera representing a diverse population. Our antibody clearance approach presents a new paradigm for expanding the prospective patient cohort and improving efficacy of AAV gene therapy.
Zachary C. Elmore, Daniel K. Oh, Katherine E. Simon, Marco M. Fanous, Aravind Asokan
Hydrocephalus is a serious condition that impacts patients of all ages. The standards of care are surgical options to divert, or inhibit production of, cerebrospinal fluid; to date, there are no effective pharmaceutical treatments, to our knowledge. The causes vary widely, but one commonality of this condition is aberrations in salt and fluid balance. We have used a genetic model of hydrocephalus to show that ventriculomegaly can be alleviated by inhibition of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4, a channel that is activated by changes in osmotic balance, temperature, pressure and inflammatory mediators. The TRPV4 antagonists do not appear to have adverse effects on the overall health of the WT or hydrocephalic animals.
Alexandra E. Hochstetler, Hillary M. Smith, Daniel C. Preston, Makenna M. Reed, Paul R. Territo, Joon W. Shim, Daniel Fulkerson, Bonnie L. Blazer-Yost
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder affecting striatal neurons beginning in young adults with loss of muscle coordination and cognitive decline. Less appreciated is the fact that HD patients also exhibit cardiac and respiratory dysfunction including pulmonary insufficiency and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanism for these symptoms is poorly understood. In the present study we provide insight into the cause of cardiorespiratory dysfunction in HD and identify a novel therapeutic target. We now show that intracellular calcium (Ca2+) leak via post-translationally modified ryanodine receptor/intracellular calcium release (RyR) channels plays an important role in HD pathology. RyR channels were oxidized, PKA phosphorylated and leaky in brain, heart and diaphragm in both HD patients and in a murine model of HD (Q175). HD mice (Q175) with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ leak exhibited cognitive dysfunction, decreased parasympathetic tone associated with cardiac arrhythmias, and reduced diaphragmatic contractile function resulting in impaired respiratory function. Defects in cognitive, motor and respiratory functions were ameliorated by treatment with a novel Rycal small molecule drug (S107) that fixes leaky RyR. Thus, leaky RyRs likely play a role in neuronal, cardiac and diaphragmatic pathophysiology in HD and identify RyRs as a potential novel therapeutic target.
Haikel Dridi, Xiaoping Liu, Qi Yuan, Steve Reiken, Yehya Mohamad, Leah R. Sittenfeld, Panagiota Apostolou, Julie Buron, Pierre Sicard, Stefan Matecki, Jérôme Thireau, Clement Menuet, Alain Lacampagne, Andrew R. Marks
Diabetes is a risk factor for myocardial infarction, and outcomes after myocardial infarction are worse among diabetics compared with nondiabetics. Diabetes is associated with impaired Heme clearance. Here, we determined whether heme toxicity and impaired heme clearance contribute to diabetic myocardial infarction injury and assessed IL-10 as a therapeutic agent for diabetic myocardial infarction. Plasma-free hemoglobin was significantly elevated in diabetic mice compared with nondiabetic mice after myocardial infarction. Infarct size had strong correlation to the level of plasma-free hemoglobin. Hemoglobin and reactive iron deposition within the infarct zone were also demonstrated in diabetic MI. IL-10 significantly reduced infarct size and improved cardiac function in diabetic mice. Moreover, IL-10 improved capillary density, reduced apoptosis, and decreased inflammation in the border zone of the infarcted hearts, findings that were partially inhibited by Tin protoporphyrin (a heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor). IL-10 upregulated CD163, the hemoglobin:haptoglobin scavenger receptor, and heme oxygenase-1 in THP-1–derived and primary human CD14+ macrophages. IL-10 significantly protected against ischemic injury when HL-1 cardiomyocytes were cotreated with hemoglobin. Together, our findings indicate that IL-10 is cardioprotective in diabetic myocardial infarction via upregulation of heme clearance pathways. These findings implicate heme clearance as a potentially novel therapeutic direction for diabetic myocardial infarction.
Rajesh Gupta, Lijun Liu, Xiaolu Zhang, Xiaoming Fan, Prasanna Krishnamurthy, Suresh Verma, Jörn Tongers, Sol Misener, Nikita Ashcherkin, Hongliu Sun, Jiang Tian, Raj Kishore
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