The complex genomic landscape of prostate cancer evolves across disease states under therapeutic pressure directed toward inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) signaling. While significantly altered genes in prostate cancer have been extensively defined, there have been fewer systematic analyses of how structural variation shapes the genomic landscape of this disease across disease states. We uniformly characterized structural alterations across 531 localized and 143 metastatic prostate cancers profiled by whole genome sequencing, 125 metastatic samples of which were also profiled via whole transcriptome sequencing. We observed distinct significantly recurrent breakpoints in localized and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC), with pervasive alterations in noncoding regions flanking the AR, MYC, FOXA1, and LSAMP genes enriched in mCRPC and TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements enriched in localized prostate cancer. We defined nine subclasses of mCRPC based on signatures of structural variation, each associated with distinct genetic features and clinical outcomes. Our results comprehensively define patterns of structural variation in prostate cancer and identify clinically actionable subgroups based on whole genome profiling.
Meng Zhou, Minjeong Ko, Anna C.H. Hoge, Kelsey Luu, Yuzhen Liu, Magdalena L. Russell, William W. Hannon, Zhenwei Zhang, Jian Carrot-Zhang, Rameen Beroukhim, Eliezer M. Van Allen, Atish D. Choudhury, Peter S. Nelson, Matthew Freedman, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Matthew Meyerson, Srinivas R. Viswanathan, Gavin Ha
Acquired mutations in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the gene encoding Estrogen Receptor alpha (ESR1) are a common mechanism of endocrine therapy resistance in metastatic ER-positive breast cancer patients. ESR1 Y537S mutation, in particular, is associated with development of resistance to most endocrine therapies used to treat breast cancer. Employing a high-throughput screen of nearly 1200 Federal Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, we show that OTX015, a bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor, is one of the top suppressors of ESR1 mutant cell growth. OTX015 was more efficacious than fulvestrant, a selective ER degrader, in inhibiting ESR1 mutant xenograft growth. When combined with abemaciclib, a CDK4/6 inhibitor, OTX015 induced more potent tumor regression than current standard-of-care treatment of abemaciclib+fulvestrant. OTX015 has preferential activity against Y537S mutant breast cancer cells and blocks their clonal selection in competition studies with wild-type cells. Thus, BET inhibition has the potential to both prevent and overcome ESR1 mutant-induced endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer.
Sm N. Udden, Qian Wang, Sunil Kumar, Venkat S. Malladi, Shwu-Yuan Wu, Shuguang Wei, Bruce A. Posner, Sophie Geboers, Noelle S. Williams, Yu-Lun Liu, Jayesh K. Sharma, Ram S. Mani, Srinivas Malladi, Karla Parra, Mia Hofstad, Ganesh V. Raj, Jose M. Larios, Reshma Jagsi, Max S. Wicha, Ben Ho Park, Gaorav P. Gupta, Arul M. Chinnaiyan, Cheng-Ming Chiang, Prasanna G. Alluri
Key molecular regulators of acquired radiation resistance in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) are largely unknown with a dearth of accurate pre-clinical models. To address this, we generated 8 GBM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of acquired radiation therapy-selected (RTS) resistance compared with same-patient, treatment naïve (RTU) PDX. These unique models mimic the longitudinal evolution of patient recurrent tumors following serial radiation therapy. Indeed, while whole exome sequencing confirmed retention of major genomic alterations in the RTS lines, we did detect a chromosome 12q14 amplification that is associated with clinical GBM recurrence in two RTS models. A novel bioinformatics pipeline was applied to analyze phenotypic, transcriptomic and kinomic alterations, which identified long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and targetable, PDX-specific kinases. We observed differential transcriptional enrichment of DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways in our RTS models which correlated with several lncRNAs. Global kinomic profiling separated RTU and RTS models, but pairwise analyses indicated that there are multiple molecular routes to acquired radiation-resistance. RTS model-specific kinases were identified and targeted with clinically relevant small molecule inhibitors (SMIs). This unique cohort of in vivo radiation therapy-selected patient-derived models will enable future preclinical therapeutic testing to help overcome the treatment resistance seen in GBM patients.
Christian T. Stackhouse, Joshua C. Anderson, Zongliang Yue, Thanh Nguyen, Nicholas J. Eustace, Catherine P. Langford, Jelai Wang, James R. Rowland IV, Chuan Xing, Fady M. Mikhail, Xiangqin Cui, Hasan Alrefai, Ryan E. Bash, Kevin J. Lee, Eddy S. Yang, Anita B. Hjelmeland, C. Ryan Miller, Jake Y. Chen, G. Yancey Gillespie, Christopher D. Willey
Metastatic urothelial carcinoma is generally incurable with current systemic therapies. Chromatin modifiers are frequently mutated in bladder cancer, with ARID1A-inactivating mutations present in about 20% of tumors. EZH2, a histone methyltransferase, acts as an oncogene that functionally opposes ARID1A. In addition, PI3K signaling is activated in more than 20% of bladder cancers. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo data, including patient derived xenografts, we show that ARID1A-mutant tumors are more sensitive to EZH2 inhibition than ARID1A-wild type tumors. Mechanistic studies reveal that: 1) ARID1A deficiency results in a dependency on PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling via novel upregulation of a non-canonical PI3K regulatory subunit, PIK3R3, and downregulation of MAPK signaling, and: 2) EZH2 inhibitor sensitivity is due to upregulation of PIK3IP1, a protein inhibitor of PI3K signaling. We show for the first time that PIK3IP1 inhibits PI3K signaling by inducing proteasomal degradation of PIK3R3. Further, ARID1A deficient bladder cancer is sensitive to combination therapies with EZH2 and PI3K inhibitors, in a synergistic manner. Thus, our studies suggest that bladder cancers with ARID1A mutations can be treated with inhibitors of EZH2 and/or PI3K, and reveal mechanistic insights into the role of non-canonical PI3K constituents in bladder cancer biology.
Hasibur Rehman, Darshan S. Chandrashekar, Chakravarthi Balabhadrapatruni, Saroj Nepal, Sai Akshaya Hodigere Balasubramanya, Abigail K. Shelton, Kasey R. Skinner, Ai-Hong Ma, Ting Rao, Marie-Lisa Eich, Alyncia D. Robinson, Gurudatta Naik, Upender Manne, George J. Netto, C. Ryan Miller, Chong-xian Pan, Guru Sonpavde, Sooryanarayana Varambally, James E. Ferguson 3rd
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin with 2 etiologies. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integration is present in about 80% of all MCC. Virus-positive MCC (MCCP) tumors have few somatic mutations and usually express WT p53 (TP53). By contrast, virus-negative MCC (MCCN) tumors present with a high tumor mutational burden and predominantly UV mutational signature. MCCN tumors typically contain mutated TP53. MCCP tumors express 2 viral proteins: MCPyV small T antigen and a truncated form of large T antigen. MCPyV ST specifically activates expression of MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p53, to inhibit p53-mediated tumor suppression. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of milademetan, a potent, selective, and orally available MDM2 inhibitor in several MCC models. Milademetan reduced cell viability of WT p53 MCC cell lines and triggered a rapid and sustained p53 response. Milademetan showed a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth in MKL-1 xenograft and patient-derived xenograft models. Here, along with preclinical data for the efficacy of milademetan in WT p53 MCC tumors, we report several in vitro and in vivo models useful for future MCC studies.
Varsha Ananthapadmanabhan, Thomas C. Frost, Kara M. Soroko, Aine Knott, Brianna J. Magliozzi, Prafulla C. Gokhale, Vijaya G. Tirunagaru, Robert C. Doebele, James A. DeCaprio
NLRP3 inflammasome and interferon stimulated gene (ISG) induction are key biological drivers of ineffective hematopoiesis and inflammation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). Gene mutations involving messenger RNA splicing and epigenetic regulatory pathways induce inflammasome activation and myeloid lineage skewing in MDS through yet undefined mechanisms. Using immortalized murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells harboring these somatic gene mutations and primary MDS bone marrow specimens, we show accumulation of unresolved R-loops and micronuclei with concurrent activation of the cytosolic sensor, cGAS. cGAS-STING signaling caused interferon stimulated gene (ISG) induction, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and maturation of the effector protease, caspase-1. Deregulation of RNA polymerase III drives cytosolic R-loop generation, which upon inhibition, extinguishes ISG and inflammasome response. Mechanistically, caspase-1 degrades the master erythroid transcription factor, GATA1, provoking anemia and myeloid lineage bias that is reversed by cGAS inhibition in vitro and in Tet2-/- hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell transplanted mice. Together, these data identity a novel mechanism by which functionally distinct mutations converge upon the cGAS-STING-NLRP3 axis in MDS directing ISG induction, pyroptosis and myeloid lineage skewing.
Amy F. McLemore, Hsin-An Hou, Benjamin S. Meyer, Nghi B. Lam, Grace A. Ward, Amy L. Aldrich, Matthew A. Rodrigues, Alexis Vedder, Ling Zhang, Eric Padron, Nicole D. Vincelette, David A. Sallman, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Alan F. List, Kathy L. McGraw
Integrins, the principal extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors of the cell, promote cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, which are key events for cancer growth and metastasis. To date, most integrin-targeted cancer therapeutics have disrupted integrin-ECM interactions, which are viewed as critical for integrin functions. However, such agents have failed to improve cancer patient outcomes. We show that the highly expressed integrin β1 subunit is required for lung adenocarcinoma development in a carcinogen-induced mouse model. Likewise, human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines with integrin β1 deletion failed to form colonies in soft agar and tumors in mice. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that these effects do not require integrin β1-mediated adhesion to ECM but are dependent on integrin β1 cytoplasmic tail-mediated activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Together, these studies support a critical role for integrin β1 in lung tumorigenesis that is mediated through constitutive, ECM-binding independent signaling involving the cytoplasmic tail.
Scott M. Haake, Erin J. Plosa, Jonathan A. Kropski, Lindsay A. Venton, Anupama Reddy, Fabian Bock, Betty T. Chang, Allen J. Luna, Kateryna Nabukhotna, Zhi-Qi Xu, Rebecca A. Prather, Sharon Lee, Harikrishna Tanjore, Vasiliy V. Polosukhin, Olga M. Viquez, Angela Jones, Wentian Luo, Matthew H. Wilson, W. Kimryn Rathmell, Pierre P. Massion, Ambra Pozzi, Timothy S. Blackwell, Roy Zent
Novel therapeutic strategies, including immunotherapeutics, targeting glioblastoma (GBM) often fail in the clinic, at least partly because available preclinical models in which hypotheses are being tested, do not recapitulate the human disease. To address this challenge, we took advantage of our previously developed spontaneous Qk/trp53/Pten (QPP) triple-knockout model of human GBM, and compared its immune microenvironment components with those of patient-derived tumors in effort to determine whether this model might provide an opportunity for gaining insights into tumor physiopathology as well as for preclinical evaluation of therapeutic agents. Immune profiling analyses and single-cell sequencing of implanted and spontaneous tumors from QPP mice as well as from GBM patients revealed intratumoral immune components that were predominantly myeloid cells (e.g. monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) with minor populations of T, B, and NK cells. When comparing spontaneous and implanted mouse samples, we found that there were more neutrophils, T and NK cells in the implanted model. Neutrophils, T and NK cells were increased in abundance in samples derived from human high-grade glioma (HGG) compared to those derived from low grade glioma (LGG). Overall, our data demonstrate that our implanted and spontaneous QPP models recapitulate the immunosuppressive myeloid dominant nature of the tumor microenvironment of human gliomas. Our model provides a suitable tool for investigating the complex immune compartment of gliomas and it may contribute to a better understanding of the resistance of human glioblastoma to currently available immunotherapeutics.
Daniel B. Zamler, Takashi Shingu, Laura M. Kahn, Kristin Huntoon, Cynthia Kassab, Martina Ott, Katarzyna Tomczak, Jintan Liu, Yating Li, Ivy Lai, Rocio Zorilla-Veloz, Cassian Yee, Kunal Rai, Betty Y.S. Kim, Stephanie S. Watowich, Amy B. Heimberger, Giulio F. Draetta, Jian Hu
Women of African ancestry suffer higher rates of breast cancer mortality compared to all other groups in the United States. Though the precise reasons for these disparities remain unclear, many recent studies have implicated a role for differences in tumor biology. Using an epitope-validated antibody against the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) E3 ubiquitin ligase, gp78, we show that elevated levels of gp78 in patient breast cancer cells predict poor survival. Moreover, high levels of gp78 are associated with poor outcomes in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, and breast cancers expressing elevated amounts of gp78 protein are enriched in gene expression pathways that influence cell cycle, metabolism, receptor-mediated signaling, and cell stress response pathways. In multivariate analysis adjusted for subtype and grade, gp78 protein is an independent predictor of poor outcomes in women of African ancestry. Furthermore, gene expression signatures, derived from patients stratified by gp78 protein expression, are strong predictors of recurrence and pathological complete response in retrospective clinical trial data and share many common features with gene sets previously identified to be overrepresented in breast cancers based on race. These findings implicate a prominent role for gp78 in tumor progression and offer new insights into our understanding of racial differences in breast cancer outcomes.
Sandeep K. Singhal, Jung S. Byun, Tingfen Yan, Ryan Yancey, Ambar Caban, Sara Gil Hernandez, Sediqua Bufford, Stephen M. Hewitt, Joy Winfield, Jaya Sarin Pradhan, Vesco Mustkov, Jasmine A. McDonald, Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, Anna Maria Napoles, Nasreen Vohra, Adriana De Siervi, Clayton Yates, Melissa B. Davis, Mei Yang, Yien Che Tsai, Allan M. Weissman, Kevin Gardner
The androgen receptor (AR) is a master transcription factor that regulates prostate cancer (PC) development and progression. Inhibition of AR signaling by androgen deprivation is the first-line therapy with initial efficacy for advanced and recurrent PC. Paradoxically, supraphysiological levels of testosterone (SPT) also inhibit PC progression. However, as with any therapy, not all patients show a therapeutic benefit, and responses differ widely in magnitude and duration. In this study, we evaluated whether differences in the AR cistrome before treatment can distinguish between SPT-responding (R) and -nonresponding (NR) tumors. We provide the first preclinical evidence to our knowledge that SPT-R tumors exhibit a distinct AR cistrome when compared with SPT-NR tumors, indicating a differential biological role of the AR. We applied an integrated analysis of ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq to the pretreatment tumors and identified an SPT-R signature that distinguishes R and NR tumors. Because transcriptomes of SPT-treated clinical specimens are not available, we interrogated available castration-resistant PC (CRPC) transcriptomes and showed that the SPT-R signature is associated with improved survival and has the potential to identify patients who would respond to SPT. These findings provide an opportunity to identify the subset of patients with CRPC who would benefit from SPT therapy.
Xintao Qiu, Lisha G. Brown, Jennifer L. Conner, Holly M. Nguyen, Nadia Boufaied, Sarah Abou Alaiwi, Ji-Heui Seo, Talal El Zarif, Connor Bell, Edward O’Connor, Brian Hanratty, Mark Pomerantz, Matthew L. Freedman, Myles Brown, Michael C. Haffner, Peter S. Nelson, Felix Y. Feng, David P. Labbé, Henry W. Long, Eva Corey
No posts were found with this tag.