Recent research on altering threat memory has focused on a reconsolidation window. During reconsolidation, threat memories are retrieved and become labile. Reconsolidation of distinct threat memories is synapse-dependent whereas the underlying regulatory mechanism of the specificity of reconsolidation is poorly understood. We designed a unique behavioral paradigm in which a distinct threat memory can be retrieved through the associated conditioned stimulus. In addition, we proposed a regulatory mechanism by which the activation of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), strengthens the distinct memory trace associated with the memory reconsolidation to determine its specificity. The activation of ASICs by carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation when paired with memory retrieval, triggers the reactivation of the distinct memory trace, resulting in greater memory lability. ASICs potentiate the memory trace by altering the amygdala-dependent synaptic transmission and plasticity at selectively targeted synapses. Our results suggest that inhaling CO2 during the retrieval event increases the lability of a threat memory through a synapse-specific reconsolidation process.
Erin E. Koffman, Charles M. Kruse, Kritika Singh, Farzaneh Sadat Naghavi, Melissa A. Curtis, Jennifer Egbo, Mark Houdi, Boren Lin, Hui Lu, Jacek Debiec, Jianyang Du
Monocyte-derived macrophages are key players in tissue homeostasis and diseases regulated by a variety of signaling molecules. Recent literature has highlighted the ability for biogenic amines to regulate macrophage functions, but the mechanisms governing biogenic amine signaling in and around immune cells remains nebulous. In the central nervous system (CNS), biogenic amine transporters are regarded as the master regulators of neurotransmitter signaling. While we and others have shown that macrophages express these transporters, relatively little is known of their function in these cells. To address these knowledge gaps, we investigated the function of norepinephrine (NET) and dopamine (DAT) transporters on human monocyte-derived macrophages. We found that both NET and DAT are present and can uptake substrate from the extracellular space at baseline. Not only was DAT expressed in cultured monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), but it was also detected in a subset of intestinal macrophages in situ. Surprisingly, we discovered a NET-independent, DAT-mediated immuno-modulatory mechanism in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced reverse transport of dopamine through DAT, engaging an autocrine/paracrine signaling loop that regulated the macrophage response. Removing this signaling loop enhanced the pro-inflammatory response to LPS. Collectively, our data introduce a potential role for DAT in the regulation of innate immunity.
Phillip M. Mackie, Adithya Gopinath, Dominic M. Montas, Alyssa Nielsen, Aidan Smith, Rachel A. Nolan, Kaitlyn Runner, Stephanie M. Matt, John McNamee, Joshua E. Riklan, Kengo Adachi, Andria Doty, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Long Yan, Peter J. Gaskill, Wolfgang J. Streit, Michael S. Okun, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Myocardial infarction causes pathological changes in the autonomic nervous system, which exacerbate heart failure and predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. These changes are characterized by sympathetic activation and parasympathetic dysfunction (reduced vagal tone). Reasons for the central vagal withdrawal and, specifically, whether myocardial infarction causes changes in cardiac vagal afferent neurotransmission that then affect efferent tone, remain unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether myocardial infarction causes changes in vagal neuronal afferent signaling. Using in-vivo neural recordings from the inferior vagal (nodose) ganglia and immunohistochemical analyses, structural and functional alterations in vagal sensory neurons were characterized in a chronic porcine infarct model and compared with normal animals. Myocardial infarction caused an increase in the number of nociceptive neurons, but a paradoxical decrease in functional nociceptive signaling. No changes in mechanosensitive neurons were observed. Notably, nociceptive neurons demonstrated an increase in GABAergic expression. Given that nociceptive signaling through the vagal ganglia increases efferent vagal tone, the results of this study suggest that a decrease in functional nociception, possibly due to an increase in expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters, may contribute to vagal withdrawal after myocardial infarction.
Siamak Salavatian, Jonathan D. Hoang, Naoko Yamaguchi, Zulfiqar A. Lokhandwala, Mohammed Amer Swid, J. Andrew Armour, Jeffrey L. Ardell, Marmar Vaseghi
siRNAs comprise a class of drugs that can be programmed to silence any target gene. Chemical engineering efforts resulted in development of divalent siRNAs (di-siRNAs), which support robust and long-term efficacy in rodent and nonhuman primate brains upon direct cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) administration. Oligonucleotide distribution in the CNS is nonuniform, limiting clinical applications. The contribution of CSF infusion placement and dosing regimen on relative accumulation, specifically in the context of large animals, is not well characterized. To our knowledge, we report the first systemic, comparative study investigating the effects of 3 routes of administration — intrastriatal (i.s.), i.c.v., and intrathecal catheter to the cisterna magna (ITC) — and 2 dosing regimens — single and repetitive via an implanted reservoir device — on di-siRNA distribution and accumulation in the CNS of Dorset sheep. CSF injections (i.c.v. and ITC) resulted in similar distribution and accumulation across brain regions. Repeated dosing increased homogeneity, with greater relative deep brain accumulation. Conversely, i.s. administration supported region-specific delivery. These results suggest that dosing regimen, not CSF infusion placement, may equalize siRNA accumulation and efficacy throughout the brain. These findings inform the planning and execution of preclinical and clinical studies using siRNA therapeutics in the CNS.
Chantal M. Ferguson, Bruno M.D.C. Godinho, Julia F. Alterman, Andrew H. Coles, Matthew Hassler, Dimas Echeverria, James W. Gilbert, Emily G. Knox, Jillian Caiazzi, Reka A. Haraszti, Robert M. King, Toloo Taghian, Ajit Puri, Richard P. Moser, Matthew J. Gounis, Neil Aronin, Heather Gray-Edwards, Anastasia Khvorova
Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated group Ⅰ adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms AC1 and AC8 have been involved in nociceptive processing and morphine responses. However, whether AC3, another member of group I ACs, is involved in nociceptive transmission and regulates opioid receptor signaling remain elusive. Here we report that conditional knockout of AC3 (AC3CKO) in L3 and L4 DRGs robustly facilitates the mouse nociceptive responses, decreases voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel currents and increases neuronal excitability. Also, AC3CKO eliminates the analgesic effect of κ opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and its inhibition on Kv channel by classical Gαi/o signaling or nonclassical direct interaction of KOR and AC3 proteins. Interestingly, significantly upregulated AC1 level and cAMP concentration are detected in AC3 deficient DRGs. Inhibition of AC1 completely reversed cAMP upregulation, neuronal excitability enhancement and nociceptive behavioral hypersensitivity in AC3CKO mice. Our findings suggest a crucial role of peripheral AC3 in nociceptive modulation and KOR opioid analgesia.
Wen-Wen Zhang, Hong Cao, Yang Li, Xian-Jun Fu, Yu-Qiu Zhang
The anatomical routes for the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remain incompletely understood. However, recent evidence has given strong support for routes leading to lymphatic vessels. A current debate centers upon the routes through which CSF can access lymphatics, with evidence emerging for either direct routes to meningeal lymphatics or along cranial nerves to reach lymphatics outside the skull. Here, a method was established to infuse contrast agent into the ventricles using indwelling cannulae during imaging of mice at 2 and 12 months of age by magnetic resonance imaging. As expected, a significant decline in overall CSF turnover was found with aging. Quantifications demonstrated that the bulk of the contrast agent flowed from the ventricles to the subarachnoid space in the basal cisterns. Comparatively little contrast agent signal was found at the dorsal aspect of the skull. The imaging dynamics from the two cohorts revealed that the contrast agent cleared from the cranium through the cribriform plate to the nasopharyngeal lymphatics. On decalcified sections, we confirmed that fluorescentlylabeled ovalbumin drains through the cribriform plate and can be found within lymphatics surrounding the nasopharynx. In conclusion, routes leading to nasopharyngeal lymphatics appear to be a major efflux pathway for cranial CSF.
Yann Decker, Jonas Krämer, Li Xin, Andreas Müller, Anja Scheller, Klaus Fassbender, Steven T. Proulx
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), caused by heterozygous mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, frequently results in intractable epilepsy. Here, we made use of an inducible Tsc1-knockout mouse model, allowing us to study electrophysiological and molecular changes of Tsc1-induced epileptogenesis over time. We recorded from pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex (L2/L3) and combined this with an analysis of transcriptome changes during epileptogenesis. Deletion of Tsc1 resulted in hippocampus-specific changes in excitability and adaptation, which emerged before seizure onset and progressed over time. All phenotypes were rescued after early treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. Later in epileptogenesis, we observed a hippocampal increase of excitation-to-inhibition ratio. These cellular changes were accompanied by dramatic transcriptional changes, especially after seizure onset. Most of these changes were rescued upon rapamycin treatment. Of the genes encoding ion channels or belonging to the Gene Ontology term action potential, 27 were differentially expressed just before seizure onset, suggesting a potential driving role in epileptogenesis. Our data highlight the complex changes driving epileptogenesis in TSC, including the changed expression of multiple ion channels. Our study emphasizes inhibition of the TSC/mTOR signaling pathway as a promising therapeutic approach to target epilepsy in patients with TSC.
Linda M.C. Koene, Eva Niggl, Ilse Wallaard, Martina Proietti-Onori, Diana C. Rotaru, Ype Elgersma
The protein tau and its isoforms are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, many of which are characterized by greater deposition of the 4R tau isoform; however, the role of 4R tau in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We created antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that alter the ratio of 3R:4R tau to investigate the role of specific tau isoforms in disease. Preferential expression of 4R tau in human tau (hTau)-expressing mice was previously shown to increase seizure severity and phosphorylated tau deposition without neuronal or synaptic loss. In this study, we observed strong colocalization of 4R tau within reactive astrocytes and increased expression of pan-reactive and neurotoxic genes following 3R to 4R tau splicing ASO treatment in hTau mice. Increasing 4R tau levels in primary astrocytes provoked a similar response, including a neurotoxic genetic profile and diminished homeostatic function, which was replicated in human iPSC-derived astrocytes harboring a mutation that exhibits greater 4R tau. Healthy neurons cultured with 4R tau-expressing human iPSC-derived astrocytes exhibited a higher firing frequency and hyper-synchrony, which could be prevented by lowering tau expression. These findings support a novel pathway by which astrocytic 4R tau mediates reactivity and dysfunction and suggest that astrocyte-targeted therapeutics against 4R tau may mitigate neurodegenerative disease progression.
Lubov A. Ezerskiy, Kathleen M. Schoch, Chihiro Sato, Mariana Beltcheva, Kanta Horie, Frank Rigo, Ryan Martynowicz, Celeste M. Karch, Randall J. Bateman, Timothy M. Miller
Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are primary auditory neurons in the spiral ganglion that transmit sound information from the inner ear to the brain and play an important role in hearing. Impairment of SGNs causes sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and it has been thought until now that SGNs cannot be regenerated once lost. Furthermore, no fundamental therapeutic strategy for SNHL has been established other than inserting devices such as hearing aids and cochlear implants. Here we show that the mouse spiral ganglion contains cells that are able to proliferate and indeed differentiate into neurons in response to injury. We suggest that SRY-box transcription factor 2/SRY-box transcription factor 10–double-positive (Sox2/Sox10–double-positive) Schwann cells sequentially started to proliferate, lost Sox10 expression, and became neurons, although the number of new neurons generated spontaneously was very small. To increase the abundance of new neurons, we treated mice with 2 growth factors in combination with valproic acid, which is known to promote neuronal differentiation and survival. This treatment resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of SGNs, accompanied by a partial recovery of the hearing loss induced by injury. Taken together, our findings offer a step toward developing strategies for treatment of SNHL.
Takahiro Wakizono, Hideyuki Nakashima, Tetsuro Yasui, Teppei Noda, Kei Aoyagi, Kanako Okada, Yasuhiro Yamada, Takashi Nakagawa, Kinichi Nakashima
BACKGROUND. Tight relationships between sleep quality, cognition and amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, emerge in the literature. Sleep arousals become more prevalent with ageing and are considered to reflect poorer sleep quality. Yet, heterogeneity in arousals has been suggested while their associations with Aβ and cognition are not established. METHODS. We recorded undisturbed night-time sleep with EEG in 101 healthy individuals in late midlife (50-70y), devoid of cognitive and sleep disorders. We classified spontaneous arousals according to their association with muscular tone increase (M+/M-) and sleep stage transition (T+/T-). We assessed cortical Aβ burden over earliest affected regions via PET imaging, and cognition via extensive neuropsychological testing. RESULTS. Arousal types differed in their oscillatory composition in theta and beta EEG bands. Furthermore, T+M- arousals, which interrupt sleep continuity, were positively linked to Aβ burden (p=.0053, R²β*=0.08). By contrast, more prevalent T-M+ arousals, upholding sleep continuity, were associated with lower Aβ burden (p=.0003, R²β*=0.13), and better cognition, particularly over the attentional domain (p<.05, R²β*≥0.04). CONCLUSION. Contrasting with what is commonly accepted, we provide empirical evidence that arousals are diverse and differently associated with early AD-related neuropathology and cognition. This suggests that sleep arousals, and their coalescence with other brain oscillations during sleep, may actively contribute to the beneficial functions of sleep. This warrants re-evaluation of age-related sleep changes and suggests that spontaneous arousals could constitute a marker of favourable brain and cognitive health trajectories. TRIAL REGISTRATION. EudraCT 2016-001436-35. FUNDING. This work was supported by Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS, FRSM 3.4516.11, Belgium), Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC SLEEPDEM 17/27-09) of the Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles, University of Liège (ULiège), Fondation Simone et Pierre Clerdent, European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, Radiomed Project). [18F]Flutemetamol doses were provided and cost covered by GE Healthcare Ltd (Little Chalfont, UK) as part of an investigator sponsored study (ISS290) agreement. This agreement had no influence on the protocol and results of the study reported here. M.V.E., C.B., F.C., C.P., and G.V. are/were supported by the F.R.S.-FNRS Belgium. C. B., P. B. and M. B. are owners of Physip, the company that analysed the EEG data as part of a collaboration. This ownership and the collaboration had no impact on the design, data acquisition and interpretations of the findings.
Daphne O. Chylinski, Maxime Van Egroo, Justinas Narbutas, Martin Grignard, Ekaterina Koshmanova, Christian Berthomier, Pierre Berthomier, Marie Brandewinder, Eric Salmon, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Christine Bastin, Fabienne Collette, Christophe Phillips, Pierre Maquet, Vincenzo Muto, Gilles Vandewalle
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