Intestinal mucins play an essential role in the defense against bacterial invasion and the maintenance of gut microbiota, which is instrumental in the regulation of host immune systems; hence, its dysregulation is a hallmark of metabolic disease and intestinal inflammation. However, the mechanism by which intestinal mucins control the gut microbiota as well as disease phenotypes remains nebulous. Herein, we report that N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-6-O-sulfation of O-glycans on intestinal mucins performs a protective role against obesity and intestinal inflammation. Chst4-/- mice, lacking GlcNAc-6-O-sulfation of the mucin O-glycans, showed significant weight gain and increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis as well as colitis-associated cancer accompanied by significantly reduced immunoglobulin A (IgA) production caused by impaired T follicular helper cell-mediated IgA response. Interestingly, the protective effects of GlcNAc-6-O-sulfation against obesity and intestinal inflammation depend on the gut microbiota, evidenced by the modulation of the gut microbiota by co-housing or microbiota transplantation reversing disease phenotypes and IgA production. Collectively, our findings provide novel insight into the significance of host glycosylation, more specifically GlcNAc-6-O-sulfation on intestinal mucins, in protecting against obesity and intestinal inflammation via regulation of the gut microbiota.
Hirohito Abo, Aoi Muraki, Akihito Harusato, Tetsuya Imura, Maki Suzuki, Kohta Takahashi, Timothy L. Denning, Hiroto Kawashima
Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1) functions as a receptor for non-pathogenic cellular prion protein (PrPC), which is released from cells by ADAM proteases or in extracellular vesicles. This interaction activates cell-signaling and attenuates inflammatory responses. We screened 14-mer PrPC-derived peptides and identified a putative LRP1 recognition motif in the PrPC sequence spanning residues 98-111. A synthetic peptide (P3) corresponding to this region replicated the cell-signaling and biological activities of full-length shed PrPC. P3 blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elicited cytokine expression in macrophages and microglia and rescued the heightened sensitivity to LPS in mice in which the PrPC gene (Prnp) is deleted. P3 activated ERK1/2 and induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The response to P3 required LRP1 and the NMDA Receptor and was blocked by the PrPC-specific antibody, POM2. P3 has Lys residues, which are typically necessary for LRP1-binding. Converting Lys100 and Lys103 into Ala eliminated the activity of P3, suggesting that these residues are essential in the LRP1 binding motif. A P3 derivative in which Lys105 and Lys109 were converted into Ala retained activity. We conclude that the biological activities of shed PrPC, attributed to interaction with LRP1, are retained in synthetic peptides, which may be templates for therapeutics development.
Elisabetta Mantuano, Carlotta Zampieri, Pardis Azmoon, Cory B. Gunner, Kyle R. Heye, Steven L. Gonias
ˆCCL24 is a pro-fibrotic, pro-inflammatory chemokine expressed in several chronic fibrotic diseases. In the liver, CCL24 plays a role in fibrosis and inflammation, and blocking CCL24 led to reduced liver injury in experimental models. We studied the role of CCL24 in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and evaluated the potential therapeutic effect of blocking CCL24 in this disease. Multidrug resistance gene 2–knockout (Mdr2–/–) mice demonstrated CCL24 expression in liver macrophages and were used as a relevant experimental PSC model. CCL24-neutralizing monoclonal antibody, CM-101, significantly improved inflammation, fibrosis, and cholestasis-related markers in the biliary area. Moreover, using spatial transcriptomics, we observed reduced proliferation and senescence of cholangiocytes following CCL24 neutralization. Next, we demonstrated that CCL24 expression was elevated under pro-fibrotic conditions in primary human cholangiocytes and macrophages, and it induced proliferation of primary human hepatic stellate cells and cholangiocytes, which was attenuated following CCL24 inhibition. Correspondingly, CCL24 was found to be highly expressed in liver biopsies of patients with PSC. CCL24 serum levels correlated with Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score, most notably in patients with high alkaline phosphatase levels. These results suggest that blocking CCL24 may have a therapeutic effect in patients with PSC by reducing liver inflammation, fibrosis, and cholestasis.
Raanan Greenman, Michal Segal-Salto, Neta Barashi, Ophir Hay, Avi Katav, Omer Levi, Ilan Vaknin, Revital Aricha, Sarit Aharoni, Tom Snir, Inbal Mishalian, Devorah Olam, Johnny Amer, Ahmad Salhab, Rifaat Safadi, Yaakov Maor, Palak Trivedi, Christopher J. Weston, Francesca Saffioti, Andrew Hall, Massimo Pinzani, Douglas Thorburn, Amnon Peled, Adi Mor
Previous studies implicate extracellular adenosine signaling in attenuating myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). This extracellular adenosine signaling is terminated by its uptake into cells by equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). Thus, we hypothesized that targeting ENTs would function to increase cardiac adenosine signaling and concomitant cardioprotection against IRI. Mice were exposed to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Myocardial injury was attenuated in mice treated with the nonspecific ENT inhibitor dipyridamole. A comparison of mice with global Ent1 or Ent2 deletion showed cardioprotection only in Ent1–/– mice. Moreover, studies with tissue-specific Ent deletion revealed that mice with myocyte-specific Ent1 deletion (Ent1loxP/loxP Myosin Cre+ mice) experienced smaller infarct sizes. Measurements of cardiac adenosine levels demonstrated that postischemic elevations of adenosine persisted during reperfusion after targeting ENTs. Finally, studies in mice with global or myeloid-specific deletion of the Adora2b adenosine receptor (Adora2bloxP/loxP LysM Cre+ mice) implied that Adora2b signaling on myeloid-inflammatory cells in cardioprotection provided by ENT inhibition. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized role for myocyte-specific ENT1 in cardioprotection by enhancing myeloid-dependent Adora2b signaling during reperfusion. Extension of these findings implicates adenosine transporter inhibitors in cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury.
Wei Ruan, Jiwen Li, Seungwon Choi, Xinxin Ma, Yafen Liang, Ragini Nair, Xiaoyi Yuan, Tingting W. Mills, Holger K. Eltzschig
Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children. Increased platelet counts and activation are observed during the course of KD, and elevated platelet counts are associated with higher risks of developing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and coronary artery (CA) aneurysms. However, the role of platelets in KD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed transcriptomics data generated from the whole blood of KD patients and discovered changes in the expression of platelet-related genes during acute KD. In the Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE) murine model of KD vasculitis, LCWE injection increased platelet counts and the formation of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs), upregulated the concentration of soluble P-selectin, and increased circulating thrombopoietin (TPO) and interleukin (IL)-6. Furthermore, platelet counts correlated with the severity of cardiovascular inflammation. Genetic depletion of platelets (mpl–/– mice) or treatment with anti-CD42b antibody led to a significant reduction of LCWE-induced cardiovascular lesions. Furthermore, in the mouse model, platelets promoted vascular inflammation via the formation of MPAs, which amplify IL-1β production. Altogether, our results indicate that platelet activation exacerbates the development of cardiovascular lesions in a murine model of KD vasculitis. These findings enhance our understanding of KD vasculitis pathogenesis and highlight MPAs, which are known to enhance IL-1β production, as a potential therapeutic target for this disorder.
Begüm Kocatürk, Youngho Lee, Nobuyuki Nosaka, Masanori Abe, Daisy Martinon, Malcolm E. Lane, Debbie Moreira, Shuang Chen, Michael C. Fishbein, Rebecca A. Porritt, Bernardo S. Franklin, Magali Noval Rivas, Moshe Arditi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to sepsis results in poor outcomes and conventional kidney function indicators lack diagnostic value. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an innate immune–derived molecule implicated in inflammatory organ damage. We characterized the diagnostic ability of longitudinal serum suPAR levels to discriminate severity and course of sepsis-induced AKI (SI-AKI) in 200 critically ill patients meeting Sepsis-3 criteria. The pathophysiologic relevance of varying suPAR levels in SI-AKI was explored in a polymicrobial sepsis model in WT, (s)uPAR-knockout, and transgenic suPAR-overexpressing mice. At all time points studied, suPAR provided a robust classification of SI-AKI disease severity, with improved prediction of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and mortality compared with established kidney biomarkers. Patients with suPAR levels of greater than 12.7 ng/mL were at highest risk for RRT or death, with an adjusted odds ratio of 7.48 (95% CI, 3.00–18.63). suPAR deficiency protected mice against SI-AKI. suPAR-overexpressing mice exhibited greater kidney damage and poorer survival through inflamed kidneys, accompanied by local upregulation of potent chemoattractants and pronounced kidney T cell infiltration. Hence, suPAR allows for an innate immune–derived and kidney function–independent staging of SI-AKI and offers improved longitudinal risk stratification. suPAR promotes T cell–based kidney inflammation, while suPAR deficiency improves SI-AKI.
Christian Nusshag, Changli Wei, Eunsil Hahm, Salim S. Hayek, Jing Li, Beata Samelko, Christoph Rupp, Roman Szudarek, Claudius Speer, Florian Kälble, Matthias Schaier, Florian Uhle, Felix C.F. Schmitt, Mascha O. Fiedler, Ellen Krautkrämer, Yanxia Cao, Ricardo Rodriguez, Uta Merle, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Martin Zeier, Markus A. Weigand, Christian Morath, Thorsten Brenner, Jochen Reiser
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1–assoicated (HTLV-1–associated) myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neuroinflammatory disease caused by the persistent proliferation of HTLV-1–infected T cells. Here, we performed a T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire analysis focused on HTLV-1–infected cells to identify and track the infected T cell clones that are preserved in patients with HAM/TSP and migrate to the CNS. TCRβ repertoire analysis revealed higher clonal expansion in HTLV-1–infected cells compared with noninfected cells from patients with HAM/TSP and asymptomatic carriers (ACs). TCR clonality in HTLV-1–infected cells was similar in patients with HAM/TSP and ACs. Longitudinal analysis showed that the TCR repertoire signature in HTLV-1–infected cells remained stable, and highly expanded infected clones were preserved within each patient with HAM/TSP over years. Expanded HTLV-1–infected clones revealed different distributions between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood and were enriched in the CSF of patients with HAM/TSP. Cluster analysis showed similarity in TCRβ sequences in HTLV-1–infected cells, suggesting that they proliferate after common antigen stimulation. Our results indicate that exploring TCR repertoires of HTLV-1–infected cells can elucidate individual clonal dynamics and identify potential pathogenic clones expanded in the CNS.
Satoshi Nozuma, Eiji Matsuura, Masakazu Tanaka, Daisuke Kodama, Toshio Matsuzaki, Akiko Yoshimura, Yusuke Sakiyama, Shingo Nakahata, Kazuhiro Morishita, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Steven Jacoboson, Ryuji Kubota, Hiroshi Takashima
Rationale. RNA binding protein 47 (RBM47) is required for embryonic endoderm development but a role in adult intestine is unknown. Objective. We studied intestine-specific Rbm47 knockout mice (Rbm47-IKO) following intestinal injury and made crosses into Apcmin/+ mice to examine alterations in intestinal proliferation, response to injury and tumorigenesis. We also interrogated human colorectal polyps and colon carcinoma tissue. Findings. Rbm47-IKO mice exhibit increased proliferation, abnormal villus morphology and cellularity, with corresponding changes in Rbm47-IKO organoids. Rbm47-IKO mice adapt to radiation injury and are protected against chemical-induced colitis, with Rbm47-IKO intestine showing upregulation of antioxidant and Wnt signaling pathways as well as stem cell and developmental genes. Furthermore, Rbm47-IKO mice are protected against colitis-associated cancer. By contrast, aged Rbm47-IKO mice develop spontaneous polyposis and Rbm47-IKO, Apcmin/+ mice manifest an increased intestinal polyp burden. RBM47 mRNA was decreased in human colorectal cancer versus paired normal tissue along with alternative splicing of TJP1 mRNA. Public databases revealed stage-specific reduction in RBM47 expression in colorectal cancer, associated independently with decreased overall survival. Conclusions. These findings implicate RBM47 as a cell-intrinsic modifier of intestinal growth, inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways.
Saeed Soleymanjahi, Valerie Blanc, Elizabeth A. Molitor, David M. Alvarado, Yan Xie, Vered Gazit, Jeffrey W. Brown, Kathleen Byrnes, Ta-Chiang Liu, Jason C. Mills, Matthew A. Ciorba, Deborah C. Rubin, Nicholas O. Davidson
Although the expression of Mex3 RNA binding family member B (MEX3B) is upregulated in human nasal epithelial cells (HENCs) predominately in the eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) subtype, its functions as an RNA binding protein in airway epithelial cells remain unknown. Here, we revealed the role of MEX3B based on different subtypes of CRS, and demonstrated that MEX3B decreased TGF-β receptor III (TGFBR3) mRNA level by binding to its 3’ UTR and reducing its stability in HNECs. TGF-βR3 was found to be a TGF-β2 specific coreceptor in HNECs. Knocking down or overexpressing MEX3B promoted or inhibited TGF-β2-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 in HNECs, respectively. TGF-βR3 and p-Smad2 levels were downregulated in CRSwNP compared with controls and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), with a more prominent downregulation in the eosinophilic CRSwNP. TGF-β2 promoted collagen production in HNECs. Collagen abundance decreased and edema scores increased in CRSwNP compared to control, again more prominently in the eosinophilic type. Collagen expression in eosinophilic CRSwNP was negatively correlated with MEX3B but positively correlated with TGF-βR3. These results suggest that MEX3B inhibits tissue fibrosis in eosinophilic CRSwNP by downregulating epithelial cell TGFBR3 expression; consequently, MEX3B might be a valuable therapeutic target against eosinophilic CRSwNP.
Jin-Xin Liu, Chen Ao-Nan, Qihong Yu, Ke-Tai Shi, Yi-Bo Liu, Cui-Lian Guo, Zhe-Zheng Wang, Yin Yao, Li Pan, Xiang Lu, Kai Xu, Heng Wang, Ming Zeng, Chaohong Liu, Robert P. Schleimer, Ning Wu, Bo Liao, Zheng Liu
BACKGROUND. Due to their immunoregulatory and tissue regenerative features, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising novel tool for the management of ulcerative proctitis (UP). Here we report on a phase IIa clinical study to evaluate the impact of local MSC therapy in UP. METHODS. Thirteen refractory UP patients, with endoscopic Mayo score (EMS) 2 or 3, were included. Seven patients received 20-40 x 106 allogeneic MSCs (cohort 1), while six patients received 40-80 x 106 MSCs (cohort 2). Adverse events (AEs) were assessed at baseline and week 2, 6, 12, and 24. Clinical, endoscopic, and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, week 2 and 6. Furthermore, we evaluated the engraftment of MSCs, presence of donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSAs), and we determined the impact of MSC therapy on the local immune compartment. RESULTS. No serious AEs were observed. The clinical Mayo score was significantly improved at week 2 and 6, and the EMS was significantly improved at week 6, compared to baseline. At week 6, donor MSCs were still detectable in rectum biopsies of 4/9 patients and DSAs against both HLA-class I and -class II were found. Mass cytometry showed a reduction of activated CD8+ T cells and CD16+ monocytes and an enrichment in mononuclear phagocytes and natural killer cells in biopsies after local MSC therapy. CONCLUSION. Local administration of allogeneic MSCs is safe, tolerable, and feasible for treatment of refractory UP and shows encouraging signs of clinical efficacy and modulation of local immune responses. This sets the stage for larger clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION. clinicaltrialsregister.eu, EudraCT: 2017-003524-75, Dutch Trial register: NTR7205. FUNDING. ECCO grant 2020.
Laura F. Ouboter, Marieke C. Barnhoorn, Hein W. Verspaget, Leonie Plug, Emma S. Pool, Karoly Szuhai, Lukas J.A.C. Hawinkels, Melissa van Pel, Jaap Jan Zwaginga, Dave Roelen, Frits Koning, M. Fernanda Pascutti, Andrea van der Meulen - de Jong
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