Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by an autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Environmental factors such as viruses play an important role in the onset of T1D and interact with predisposing genes. Recent data suggest that viral infection of human islets leads to a decrease in insulin production rather than β cell death, suggesting loss of β cell identity. We undertook this study to examine whether viral infection could induce human β cell dedifferentiation. Using the functional human β cell line EndoC-βH1, we demonstrate that polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA that mimics a byproduct of viral replication, induces a decrease in β cell–specific gene expression. In parallel with this loss, the expression of progenitor-like genes such as SOX9 was activated following PolyI:C treatment or enteroviral infection. SOX9 was induced by the NF-κB pathway and also in a paracrine non–cell-autonomous fashion through the secretion of IFN-α. Lastly, we identified SOX9 targets in human β cells as potentially new markers of dedifferentiation in T1D. These findings reveal that inflammatory signaling has clear implications in human β cell dedifferentiation.
Masaya Oshima, Klaus-Peter Knoch, Marc Diedisheim, Antje Petzold, Pierre Cattan, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Pratik Choudhary, Guo-Cai Huang, Stefan R. Bornstein, Michele Solimena, Olivier Albagli-Curiel, Raphael Scharfmann
Type I IFN (IFN-I) dysregulation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development, and although increased IFN-I signals are pathogenic at the initiation of autoimmune diabetes, IFN-I dysregulation at later pathogenic stages more relevant for therapeutic intervention is not well understood. We discovered that 5 key antigen-presenting cell subsets from adult prediabetic NOD mice have reduced responsiveness to IFN-I that is dominated by a decrease in the tonic-sensitive subset of IFN-I response genes. Blockade of IFNAR1 in prediabetic NOD mice accelerated diabetes and increased Th1 responses. Therefore, IFN-I responses shift from pathogenic to protective as autoimmunity progresses, consistent with chronic IFN-I exposure. In contrast, IL-1–associated inflammatory pathways were elevated in prediabetic mice. These changes correlated with human T1D onset-associated gene expression. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin receptor 4 (PTGER4), a receptor for PGE2 that mediates both inflammatory and regulatory eicosanoid signaling, were higher in NOD mice and drive innate immune dysregulation. Treating prediabetic NOD mice with a PTGER4 antagonist restored IFNAR signaling, decreased IL-1 signaling, and decreased infiltration of leukocytes into the islets. Therefore, innate cytokine alterations contribute to both T1D-associated inflammation and autoimmune pathogenesis. Modulating innate immune balance via signals such as PTGER4 may contribute to treatments for autoimmunity.
M. Jubayer Rahman, Kameron B. Rodrigues, Juan A. Quiel, Yi Liu, Vipul Bhargava, Yongge Zhao, Chie Hotta-Iwamura, Han-Yu Shih, Annie W. Lau-Kilby, Allison M.W. Malloy, Timothy W. Thoner, Kristin V. Tarbell
Phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) and PDE4 regulate levels of cyclic AMP, which are critical in various cell types involved in allergic airway inflammation. Although PDE4 inhibition attenuates allergic airway inflammation, reported side effects preclude its application as an antiasthma drug in humans. Case reports showed that enoximone, which is a smooth muscle relaxant that inhibits PDE3, is beneficial and lifesaving in status asthmaticus and is well tolerated. However, clinical observations also showed antiinflammatory effects of PDE3 inhibition. In this study, we investigated the role of PDE3 in a house dust mite–driven (HDM-driven) allergic airway inflammation (AAI) model that is characterized by T helper 2 cell activation, eosinophilia, and reduced mucosal barrier function. Compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, mice with a targeted deletion of the PDE3A or PDE3B gene showed significantly reduced HDM-driven AAI. Therapeutic intervention in WT mice showed that all hallmarks of HDM-driven AAI were abrogated by the PDE3 inhibitors enoximone and milrinone. Importantly, we found that enoximone also reduced the upregulation of the CD11b integrin on mouse and human eosinophils in vitro, which is crucial for their recruitment during allergic inflammation. This study provides evidence for a hitherto unknown antiinflammatory role of PDE3 inhibition in allergic airway inflammation and offers a potentially novel treatment approach.
Jan Beute, Melanie Lukkes, Ewout P. Koekoek, Hedwika Nastiti, Keerthana Ganesh, Marjolein J.W. de Bruijn, Steve Hockman, Menno van Nimwegen, Gert-Jan Braunstahl, Louis Boon, Bart N. Lambrecht, Vince C. Manganiello, Rudi W. Hendriks, Alex KleinJan
Signaling through IL-2/IL-15Rβ (CD122) is essential for the differentiation and function of T cells and NK cells. A mAb against CD122 has been implicated to suppress autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in animal models. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We find that in vivo administration of an anti-CD122 mAb (CD122 blockade) restores immune tolerance in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice via multiple mechanisms. First, CD122 blockade selectively ablates pathogenic NK cells and memory phenotype CD8+ T cells from pancreatic islets. In contrast, islet CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs are only mildly affected. Second, CD122 blockade suppresses IFN-γ production in islet immune cells. Third, CD122 blockade inhibits the conversion of islet Th17 cells into diabetogenic Th1 cells. Furthermore, a combination of anti-CD122 mAb and Treg-trophic cytokines (IL-2 or IL-33) enhances the abundance and function of islet Tregs. In summary, these data provide crucial mechanistic insights into CD122 blockade–mediated immunoregulation and support therapeutic benefits of this combinational treatment in T1D.
Xiaomei Yuan, Yi Dong, Naoya Tsurushita, J. Yun Tso, Wenxian Fu
Inflammation is critical to atherogenesis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that accelerates atherosclerosis in humans and provides a compelling model to understand potential pathways linking these diseases. A murine model capturing the vascular and metabolic diseases in psoriasis would accelerate our understanding and provide a platform to test emerging therapies. We aimed to characterize a new murine model of skin inflammation (Rac1V12) from a cardiovascular standpoint to identify novel atherosclerotic signaling pathways modulated in chronic skin inflammation. The RacV12 psoriasis mouse resembled the human disease state, including presence of systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and cardiometabolic dysfunction. Psoriasis macrophages had a proatherosclerotic phenotype with increased lipid uptake and foam cell formation, and also showed a 6-fold increase in cholesterol crystal formation. We generated a triple-genetic K14-RacV12–/+/Srb1–/–/ApoER61H/H mouse and confirmed psoriasis accelerates atherogenesis (~7-fold increase). Finally, we noted a 60% reduction in superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression in human psoriasis macrophages. When SOD2 activity was restored in macrophages, their proatherogenic phenotype reversed. We demonstrate that the K14-RacV12 murine model captures the cardiometabolic dysfunction and accelerates vascular disease observed in chronic inflammation and that skin inflammation induces a proatherosclerotic macrophage phenotype with impaired SOD2 function, which associated with accelerated atherogenesis.
Yvonne Baumer, Qimin Ng, Gregory E. Sanda, Amit K. Dey, Heather L. Teague, Alexander V. Sorokin, Pradeep K. Dagur, Joanna I. Silverman, Charlotte L. Harrington, Justin A. Rodante, Shawn M. Rose, Nevin J. Varghese, Agastya D. Belur, Aditya Goyal, Joel M. Gelfand, Danielle A. Springer, Christopher K.E. Bleck, Crystal L. Thomas, Zu-Xi Yu, Mårten C.G. Winge, Howard S. Kruth, M. Peter Marinkovich, Aditya A. Joshi, Martin P. Playford, Nehal N. Mehta
Sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation and poor survival. Since neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity leads to increased plasma 2-chlorofatty acid (2-ClFA) levels, we hypothesized that plasma concentrations of 2-ClFAs would associate with ARDS and mortality in subjects with sepsis. In sequential consenting patients with sepsis, free 2-ClFA levels were significantly associated with ARDS, and with 30-day mortality, for each log increase in free 2-chlorostearic acid. Plasma MPO was not associated with either ARDS or 30-day mortality but was correlated with 2-ClFA levels. Addition of plasma 2-ClFA levels to the APACHE III score improved prediction for ARDS. Plasma 2-ClFA levels correlated with plasma levels of angiopoietin-2, E selectin, and soluble thrombomodulin. Endothelial cells treated with 2-ClFA responded with increased adhesion molecule surface expression, increased angiopoietin-2 release, and dose-dependent endothelial permeability. Our results suggest that 2-ClFAs derived from neutrophil MPO-catalyzed oxidation contribute to pulmonary endothelial injury and have prognostic utility in sepsis-associated ARDS.
Nuala J. Meyer, John P. Reilly, Rui Feng, Jason D. Christie, Stanley L. Hazen, Carolyn J. Albert, Jacob D. Franke, Celine L. Hartman, Jane McHowat, David A. Ford
Although recent evidence has pointed to the role of organ- and pathogenesis-specific macrophage subsets, it is still unclear which subsets are critically involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Using melanocortin-4 receptor–deficient (MC4R-KO) mice fed Western diet (WD), which exhibit liver phenotypes similar to those of human NASH, we found a histological structure, termed hepatic crown-like structure (hCLS), in which CD11c+ macrophages surround dead/dying hepatocytes, a prominent feature of NASH. Here, we demonstrate that hCLS-constituting macrophages could be a novel macrophage subset that drives hepatocyte death-triggered liver fibrosis. In an “inducible NASH model,” hepatocyte death induces hCLS formation and liver fibrosis sequentially in the short term. In combination with the long-term WD feeding model, we also showed that resident macrophages are a major cellular source of CD11c+ macrophages constituting hCLS, which exhibited gene expression profiles distinct from CD11c– macrophages scattered in the liver. Moreover, depletion of CD11c+ macrophages abolished hCLS formation and fibrogenesis in NASH. Our clinical data suggest the role of CD11c+ macrophages in the disease progression from simple steatosis to NASH. This study sheds light on the role of resident macrophages, in addition to recruited macrophages, in the pathogenesis of NASH.
Michiko Itoh, Takayoshi Suganami, Hideaki Kato, Sayaka Kanai, Ibuki Shirakawa, Takeru Sakai, Toshihiro Goto, Masahiro Asakawa, Isao Hidaka, Hiroshi Sakugawa, Koji Ohnishi, Yoshihiro Komohara, Kenichi Asano, Isao Sakaida, Masato Tanaka, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes regulate the formation of eicosanoids and lysophospholipids that contribute to allergic airway inflammation. Secreted PLA2 group X (sPLA2-X) was recently found to be increased in the airways of asthmatics and is highly expressed in airway epithelial cells and macrophages. In the current study, we show that allergen exposure increases sPLA2-X in humans and in mice, and that global deletion of Pla2g10 results in a marked reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophil and T cell trafficking to the airways, airway occlusion, generation of type-2 cytokines by antigen-stimulated leukocytes, and antigen-specific immunoglobulins. Further, we found that Pla2g10–/– mice had reduced IL-33 levels in BALF, fewer type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lung, less IL-33–induced IL-13 expression in mast cells, and a marked reduction in both the number of newly recruited macrophages and the M2 polarization of these macrophages in the lung. These results indicate that sPLA2-X serves as a central regulator of both innate and adaptive immune response to proteolytic allergen.
James D. Nolin, Ying Lai, Herbert Luke Ogden, Anne M. Manicone, Ryan C. Murphy, Dowon An, Charles W. Frevert, Farideh Ghomashchi, Gajendra S. Naika, Michael H. Gelb, Gail M. Gauvreau, Adrian M. Piliponsky, William A. Altemeier, Teal S. Hallstrand
Accumulation of lipid droplets and inflammatory cell infiltration is the hallmark of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The roles of noncoding RNAs in NASH are less known. We aim to elucidate the function of miR-141/200c in diet-induced NASH. WT and miR-141/200c–/– mice were fed a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet for 2 weeks to assess markers of steatosis, liver injury, and inflammation. Hepatic miR-141 and miR-200c RNA levels were highly induced in human patients with NASH fatty liver and in WT MCD mice. miR-141/200c–/– MCD mice had reduced liver weights and triglyceride (TG) levels, which was associated with increased microsomal TG transfer protein (MTTP) and PPARα but reduced SREBP1c and FAS expression. Inflammation was attenuated and F4/80 macrophage activation was suppressed in miR-141/200c–/– mice, as evidenced by decreased serum aminotransferases and IL-6 and reduced hepatic proinflammatory, neutrophil, and profibrotic genes. Treatment with LPS in BM-derived macrophages isolated from miR-200c/141–/– mice polarized macrophages toward the M2 antiinflammatory state by increasing Arg1 and IL-10 levels while decreasing the M1 marker iNOS. In addition, elevated phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), p-AKT, and p-GSK3β and diminished TLR4 and p-mTOR/p-4EBP1 proteins were observed. Lipidomics and metabolomics revealed alterations of TG and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid species by miR-141/200c deficiency. In summary, miR-141/200c deficiency diminished NASH-associated hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reprogramming lipid and inflammation signaling pathways.
Melanie Tran, Sang-Min Lee, Dong-Ju Shin, Li Wang
Evidence indicates that neuroinflammation contributes to motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive muscular paralysis. However, it remains elusive whether inflammatory cells can interact with degenerating distal motor axons, influencing the progressive denervation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). By analyzing the muscle extensor digitorum longus (EDL) following paralysis onset in the SOD1G93A rat model, we have observed a massive infiltration and degranulation of mast cells, starting after paralysis onset and correlating with progressive NMJ denervation. Remarkably, mast cells accumulated around degenerating motor axons and NMJs, and were also associated with macrophages. Mast cell accumulation and degranulation in paralytic EDL muscle was prevented by systemic treatment over 15 days with masitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently in clinical trials for ALS exhibiting pharmacological activity affecting mast cells and microglia. Masitinib-induced mast cell reduction resulted in a 35% decrease in NMJ denervation and reduced motor deficits as compared with vehicle-treated rats. Masitinib also normalized macrophage infiltration, as well as regressive changes in Schwann cells and capillary networks observed in advanced paralysis. These findings provide evidence for mast cell contribution to distal axonopathy and paralysis progression in ALS, a mechanism that can be therapeutically targeted by masitinib.
Emiliano Trias, Sofía Ibarburu, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Valentina Varela, Ivan C. Moura, Patrice Dubreuil, Olivier Hermine, Joseph S. Beckman, Luis Barbeito
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